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Period 1_ c. 1450 to c. 1648 - Union High School

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Period 1: c. 1450 to c. 1648
KEYCONCEPT 1.2The struggle for sovereignty within and among states resulted in varying degrees of political centralization.
Social Hierarchies393-397
Politics and the State397-403
Spread of Protestant Ideas422-428
17th Century Crisis and Rebuilding480-486
Absolutism in France and Spain486-494
Absolutism in France and Spain486-494
Alternatives to Absolutism in England and the Dutch Republic506-513
KEYCONCEPT 1.2Three trends shaped early modern political development: (1) from decentralized power and authority toward centralization; (2) from a political elite consisting primarily of a hereditary landed nobility toward one open to men distinguished by their education, skills, and wealth; and (3) from religious toward secular norms of law and justice.One innovation promoting state centralization and the transformation of the landed nobility was the new dominance of firearms and artillery on the battlefield. The introduction of these new technologies, along with changes in tactics and strategy, amounted to a military revolution that reduced the role of mounted knights and castles, raised the cost of maintaining military power beyond the means of individual lords, and led to professionalization of the military on land and sea under the authority of the sovereign. This military revolution favored rulers who could command the resources required for building increasingly complex fortifications and fielding disciplined infantry and artillery units. Monarchs who could increase taxes and create bureaucracies tocollectand spend them on their military outmaneuvered those who could not.In general, monarchs gained power vis-à-vis the corporate groups and institutions that had thrived during the medieval period, notably the landed nobility and the clergy. Commercial and professional groups, such as merchants, lawyers, and other educated and talented persons, acquired increasing power in the state — often in alliance with the monarchs — alongside or in place of these traditional corporate groups. New legal and political theories, embodied in the codification of law, strengthened state institutions, which increasingly took control of the social and economic order from traditional religious and local bodies. However, these developments were not universal. In eastern and southern Europe, the traditional elites maintained their positions in many polities.The centralization of power within polities took place within and facilitated a new diplomatic framework among states. Ideals of a universal Christian empire declined along with the power and prestige of the Holy Roman Empire, which was unable to overcome the challenges of political localism and religious pluralism. By the end of the Thirty Years’ War, a new state system had emerged based on sovereign nation-states and the balance of power.
I. The new concept of the sovereign state and secular systems of law played a central role in the creation of new political institutions. [PP-6|OS-3|OS-9|SP-1|SP-2|SP-3|IS-2]
Social Hierarchies393-397
Politics and the State397-403
Social Hierarchies393-397
1.2. IPP-6Analyze howcommercialand professional groups gained inpowerthrough thegrowth of cities and changes in the social structure, most notably a shift from a landed to a commercial elite.
1.2. IIS-2Explain how theriseof commercial and professionalgroups challengedthe dominancetraditionalestates.
Social Hierarchies393-397
C. Across Europe, commercial and professional groups gained in power and played a greater role in political affairs.
How does new wealth blur the lines between “classes”?
wMerchants and financiers in Renaissance Italy and northern Europe
Politics and the State397-403
1.2. ISP-2Explain the emergence of and theories behind the New Monarchiesandevaluate the degree to which they were able to centralize power in their states.
Politics and the State397-403
A. New Monarchies laid the foundation for the centralized modern state by establishing a monopoly on tax collection, military force, and the dispensing of justice, and gaining the right to determine the religion of their subjects.
wJeanBodin
Politics and the State397-403
wConcordat of Bologna (1516)
Francis I
Politics and the State397-403
wStar Chamber
Henry VII
Politics and the State397-403
wFerdinand and Isabella of Spain consolidating control of the military
Politics and the State397-403
Ferdinand and Isabella
Politics and the State397-403
How does marriage set Spain up for its Golden Age?
Charles V (Charles I)
1.2. IOS-9Explaintheextent to whichthe new conceptof sovereign state and secular systemsof law adheredto or diverged fromtradition.
1.2. ISP-3Trace the changing relationship betweenecclesiasticalauthorityandstatecontrol overreligion.
Spread of Protestant Ideas422-428
Spread of Protestant Ideas422-428
A. New Monarchies laid the foundation for the centralized modern state bygainingthe right to determine the religion of their subjects.
Henry VIII
Spread of Protestant Ideas422-428
B.Monarchs and princes, such as the English rulers Henry VIII and Elizabeth I, initiated religious reform from the top down (magisterial) in an effort to exercise greater control over religious life and morality.
wBook of Common Prayer
Spread of Protestant Ideas422-428
wNobles in Poland
C. Religious conflicts became a basis for challenging the monarchs’ control of religious institutions.
Thenew concept of the sovereign state and secular systems of law played a central role in the creation of new political institutions.[PP-6|OS-3|OS-9|SP-1|SP-2|SP-3|IS-2]
17th Century Crisis and Rebuilding480-486
17th Century Crisis and Rebuilding480-486
1.2. ISP-1Explain the emergence of civic humanism andthe newconceptionof the growthof sovereignnation-state.
1.2. IOS-9Explaintheextent to whichthe new conceptof sovereign state and secular systemsof law adheredto or diverged fromtradition.
1.2. IISP-13Evaluate how theearlymodern military revolutionchangedthe scale and cost of warfare, requiredthe centralizationof power, and shifted the balance of power.
17th Century Crisis and Rebuilding480-486
A. New Monarchies laid the foundation for the centralized modern state by establishing a monopoly on tax collection, military force, and the dispensing of justice, and gaining the right to determine the religion of their subjects.
17th Century Crisis and Rebuilding480-486
B. Advances in military technology (i.e., the military revolution) led to new forms of warfare, including greater reliance on infantry, firearms, mobile cannon, and more elaborate fortifications, all financed by heavier taxation and requiring a larger bureaucracy. Technology, tactics, and strategies tipped the balance of power toward states able to marshal sufficient resources for the new military environment.
TO THE BATTLEFIELD
17th Century Crisis and Rebuilding480-486
C.Secular political theories, such as those espoused in Machiavelli’sThe Prince, provided a new concept of the state.
wHugo Grotius
Absolutism in France and Spain486-494
III. The competition for power between monarchs and corporate groups produced different distributions of governmental authority in European states.[SP-2|SP-7|SP-11]
Absolutism in France and Spain486-494
1.2. IIISP-2Explain the emergence of and theories behindabsolutist monarchiesand evaluate the degree to which they were able to centralize power in their states.
Absolutism in France and Spain486-494
A.Monarchies seeking enhanced power faced challenges from nobles who wished to retain traditional forms of shared governance and regional autonomy.
Henry IV
Absolutism in France and Spain486-494
wLouis XIII and Cardinal Richelieu
Absolutism in France and Spain486-494
wTheFrondein France
Mazarin
Absolutism in France and Spain486-494
What were the reasons for the decline of Spanish power?
wPhillip III
WPhillip IV
wThe Catalan Revolts in Spain
Duke of Lerma
Duke of Olivares
Alternatives to Absolutism in England and the Dutch Republic506-513
1.2. IIISP-7Explain the emergence oflimited representativegovernment as an alternative to absolutism.
1.2IIISP-11Analyze hownobles during the EnglishCivil Warattemptedto limit monarchical power by articulating theories of resistance to absolutism and by taking political action.
Alternatives to Absolutism in England and the Dutch Republic506-513
A.Across Europe, commercial and professional groups gained in power and played a greater role in political affairs.
wGentry in England
Alternatives to Absolutism in England and the Dutch Republic506-513
B.Religious conflicts became a basis for challenging the monarchs’ control of religious institutions.
wPuritans
wJames I
Alternatives to Absolutism in England and the Dutch Republic506-513
wCharles I
Archbishop Laud
Alternatives to Absolutism in England and the Dutch Republic506-513
A. The English Civil War, a conflict between the monarchy, Parliament, and other elites over their respective roles in the political structure, exemplified this competition.
wCharles I
Alternatives to Absolutism in England and the Dutch Republic506-513
Alternatives to Absolutism in England and the Dutch Republic506-513
wOliver Cromwell
Alternatives to Absolutism in England and the Dutch Republic506-513
Why was Oliver Cromwell an "absolute monarch"?
wGerolamoCardanowJohannes KeplerwSir Isaac Newton
wGerolamoCardanowJohannes KeplerwSir Isaac Newton
Which two treaties were intended to end hostilities in the 1550’s?
17th Century Crisis and Rebuilding480-486
17th Century Crisis and Rebuilding480-486
II. The competitive state system led to new patterns of diplomacy and new forms of warfare.[OS-3|SP-13|SP-15]
17th Century Crisis and Rebuilding480-486
1.2. ISP-3Trace the changing relationship betweenecclesiasticalauthorityandstatecontrol overreligion.
1.2. IOS-3Explain hownewpolitical systems and secular systems oflaw alteredthe role of the church in political and intellectual life and the response of religious authorities and intellectuals to such challenges.
1.2. IISP-15Assess the impact ofthePeaceof Westphalia and balance ofpoweron Europeandiplomacyuntil 1789.
1.2. IIOS-3Explain how political revolution and war from the 17th century on altered theconceptof the balance ofpower.
17th Century Crisis and Rebuilding480-486
What were the causes, phases, and results of the Thirty Year's War?
17th Century Crisis and Rebuilding480-486
wGustavusAdolphus
wFrance, Sweden, and Denmark in the Thirty Years’ War
A.States exploited religious conflicts to promote political and economic interests.
17th Century Crisis and Rebuilding480-486
wFrance
Richelieu
17th Century Crisis and Rebuilding480-486
A.The Peace of Westphalia (1648), which marked the effective end of the medieval ideal of universal Christendom, accelerated the decline of the Holy Roman Empire by granting princes, bishops, and other local leaders control over religion.
17th Century Crisis and Rebuilding480-486
B.Following the Peace of Westphalia, religion no longer was a cause for warfare among European states; instead, the concept of the balance of power played an important role in structuring diplomatic and military objectives.
17th Century Crisis and Rebuilding480-486

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Period 1_ c. 1450 to c. 1648 - Union High School