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Unit--6-How-Do-We-deal-with-the-Drug-Problems--关于毒品问题

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How Do We Deal with the Drug Problem?
Gore Vidal
Clarence Page
Charles Krauthammer
How Do We Deal with the Drug Problem?
Questions/Activities
Objectives
Unit 6
Warming up
How Do We Deal with the Drug Problem?
Warming up
How much do you know about the drug problem before reading the essays? Pleaselistthe names of some drugs and speak out its effects on people?

2. Why do you think people still take drugs in spite of the worldwide anti-drug campaigns? What are people’s motivations of abusing (taking) drugs? What kind of people is the largest group?

3. What do you know about the situation in China? Do you think the drug problem is serious?
Questions/Activities
Objectives
Try to increase more knowledge about drug problems and form correct and healthy attitude towards drug.
Learn about the different solutions to the drug problem and understand the pros and cons of each of them.
Compare the arguments and find out their logical premises and fallacies.
Learn how to argue coherently and convincingly by studying the techniques employed by the writers.
Warming up
Background
History
Authors
How Do We Deal with the Drug Problem?
1. Gore Vidal
prolific American novelist,
and essayist
political activist:
Democratic- Liberal
The war on drugs has nothing at all to do with drugs. It is part of an all-out war on the American people by a government interested only in control.
—Gore Vidal
Background
Authors
“Probably no American writer since Franklin has derided, ridiculed, and mocked Americans more skillfully and more often than Vidal.”(Gordon S. Wood,The New York Times, December 14, 2003)
Gore Vidal was often pointedly controversial: he published comments ondemocracy, homosexuality, religion, and drug legalization.
Background
Authors
2. Clarence Page
columnist and member of the editorial board of theChicago Tribune
1972 Pulitzer Prize for a Chicago Tribune Task Force series on voter fraud
1989 Pulitzer Prize for Commentary
Background
Background
Authors
3. Charles Krauthammer
asyndicated columnist:The
Washington PostWriters Group
political commentator
physician
conservative (neoconservative in
foreign policy)
Background
Authors
Compare the three authors’ backgrounds and see if you can
explain why they disagree with each other.
Background
Authors
Prohibitionin the United States (the Noble Experiment)
1840s, spearheaded by some religious denominations
1881, Kansas as the first to outlaw alcoholic beverages
1917, alcohol banned as mandated in the 18th Amendment to the Constitution1919-1933, nation-wide movement, plagued by smuggling and bootlegging造私酒1933, the 18th Amendment repealed by the 21st Amendment
History
Background
Question:What are the different arguments by the three authors?
Gore Vidal: argued for legalization, which he believed could solve all problems right away.
Clarence Page: did not agree, but he also opposed the idea of further criminalization, believing that a problem caused by many factors had to be dealt with a multifaceted way.
Charles Krauthammer: disagreed with legalization, but he offered a better stragety which he called “deglamorization”
How Do We Deal with the Drug Problem?
I.Thesis: plausibility of legalization (para. 1)
II. Reasoning(paras. 2-8)
A. rebuttal of the danger of a whiff of opium (para 2)
B. The freedom to do what one wants (para 3)
C. rebuttal of the warning rumble that legalization will lead
us to end up a race of Zombie. (para 4)
D. a consequence of prohibition: making people want it more (para 5)
E. the negative effects of the prohibition (paras. 6-7)
F. The consequences of a slight reduction in the supply of marujuana (para 8)
III. Conclusion:unlikelihood of legalization (9-10)
Text Analysis
Essay 1
Try to find out the topic sentence in each paragraph, or even some key words.
Detailed Analysis of Essay One
1.Simplymake all drugsavailableand sell themat cost.
Para: just make all the drugseasy to getand sell them without
profit.
at cost: (at cost price)
e.g: Tom’s uncle is a car dealer and let him buy the car at cost.
c.f: The enemy finally took the city, butat a heavy cost.
I don’t think you should work so hardat the cost ofyour youth.
We were instructed that man’s life be savedat all costs. (at any cost)
at cost/ at a cost/at the cost of/ at all costs/at any cost
Text Analysis: Argument 1(para 1-2)
addict:n a person who is unable to stop taking drugs, alcohol, tobacco,etc
a heroin addict/ a chess addict/a TV addict
Addicted adj 通常做表语 be/become addicted toGradually, he became addicted to~.
Addictive adj causing addiction 可做定语和表语

Addiction: condition of taking drugs, etc
Text Analysis: Argument 1(para 1-2)
Don’t exaggerate the harmful effect of marijuana. It is neither addictive nor dangerous, as is often described. Differentiate it from “speed” and heroin. “Speed” causes death while heroin is difficult to stop using once a person is addicted to it.
2. Don’t say that marijuana is addictive and dangerous when it is neither, unlike “speed”, which kills most unpleasantly, or heroin, which is addictive and difficult to kick. (Para. 1)
(slang) to give up or break (a drug addiction, a bad habit, etc.)
non-restrictive relative clause
3.kick/break the habit (infml)slang
to stop doing sth that has been a habit for a long time, esp. a bad or dangerous habit
The center provides help for addicts who have kicked their habit and want to stay away from drugs.
Alex has kicked cigarettes, heroin, and booze.
Crack/John/hooker/butt
Text Analysis: Argument 1(para 1-2)
4.For the record, I have tried every drug and liked none,disprovingthe popular theory thata whiff ofopium willenslavethe mind.For the record:to declare openly and officially.郑重说明
Just for the record, I didn’t vote for him.
For the record I’d just like to say that I totally disagree with this decision.
disprove/approve/approval
A whiff of: a small amount of; a slight sign or feeling of sth
A whiff of onion/fear/danger/hypocisy
Enslaved: to become slaved by, to be controlled by
Text Analysis: Argument 1(para 1-2)
Along withexhortation and warning, it might be good for our citizens to recall that the United States was the creation of men who believed that each man has the right to do what he wants with his own life as long as he does not interfere with his neighbor’s pursuit of happiness. (Para. 3)
While urging people not to take drugs and warning them of the dangers, we should remind our citizens that their country was created by the early European settlers who believed that a man has the right to do whatever he wishes to his own life as long as what he does doesn’t prevent his neighbor from seeking happiness.
5. Zombie:(informal)someone who does not seem to know or care about what is happening around them and moves very slowly, esp. because they are very upset or tired
“Zombie” is a protest song(反战歌曲)by the Irish band The Cranberries from the 1994 albumNo Need to Argue.
The “Zombie” interpreted by the Super Girl Li-Yuchun started a debate whether the girl truly understands the anti-war meaning in the song.
僵尸,行尸走肉;行动呆板的人,无精打采的人
Along with sb: besides
Interfere with
In pusuit of: pursue
End up: finally become
In advance
Text Analysis
Essay 1
7. Forbidding people things they like or think theymight…all the more. This psychologicalinsight,for some mysterious reason, alwaysdeniedour governors.
All the more: even more than before
All the better, all the harder
Insight: the ability to perceive sth
E.g: As a child, he has showed a keen insight___ people’s character.
Deny: refuse or disagree
This means that our governors never seem to understand this.
It is a lucky thing for the American moralist that we have no public memory of anything that happened last Tuesday. (Para. 6)
Most Americans have a bad memory and don’t remember anything that happened in the past. This is a lucky thing for those people who advocate forbidding drugs (for if they remembered what Prohibition in the 1920s resulted in, they would see that prohibition of drugs will not be feasible, either).
It’s used in a derogatory way.
forbid/prohibit/prevent
forbid sb to do sth; prohibit/prevent sb from doing sth
.
stamp out
踩灭(火)
Please stamp out the butt of the cigarette in case it would cause fire.
消除,消灭,镇压
The local government has made a drive to stamp out corruption.
Text Analysis
Essay 1
Last year when the supply of marijuana was slightly reduced by the Feds, the pushers got the kids hooked on heroin and deaths increased ramatically. (Para. 8)
to find sth. so attractive or interesting that you can’t stop yourself from doing it
Last year when the FBI got tough with drug dealing, and the supply of marijuana went slightly down, young marijuana users had to shift to a more harmful drug—heroin. Pushers got them addicted, and the number of people who died of overdose went up sharply.
go to 7
10. get (sb) hooked on: be addicted to sth
根据最近的一份报告,八岁的小孩子就会吸海洛因成瘾。
According to a recent report,children as young as eight years old can get hooked on heroin.

小伙子是很容易喜欢上这种音乐的。
Young men can easily get hooked on this kind of music.
Text Analysis
Essay 1
11. have a vested interest in (doing) sth: 从中获得既得利益
美国南北战争以前,要废除奴隶制很难,因为奴隶主有既得利益。
It was difficult to end the system of slavery before the Civil War because slave owners had a vested interest in keeping it.
莫娜离开公司对他有利。
He has a vested interest in Mona’s leaving the firm.
Text Analysis
Essay 1
Finally, if there was no money in it, the Bureau of Narcotics would wither away, something they are not about to do without a struggle. (Para. 9)
to become weaker and then disappear
Finally, if the Mafia couldn’t get money out of drug dealing when drugs are legal, the Bureau of Narcotics would be disbanded. This is something the government will surely try hard to prevent because the people working in the Bureau would lose their jobs.
12. wither away
todie out or disappear gradually
因为吸毒,她成为艺术家的希望逐渐幻灭。
As a result of her drug addiction, her promise of becoming an artist withered away.
老年人抱怨,在现今社会,老的价值观念正在逐渐消失
Older people are complaining that the old values are withering away in the present society.
Text Analysis
Essay 1
Questions to Essay 2
What is the tone of Clarence Page when he mentioned the idea of legalization?
According to Clarence Page, how will drug legalization benefit the society?
What are the ideas of deep thinkers? What are Schmoke’s ideas? and what are Milton Friedman’s ideas?
What is William Bennet’s rebuttal? And how does the author give his opinions?
What is the solution to the drug problem offered by Page?
Neither legalization nor criminalization will work. It is in fact
a social problem.
What then are hismain arguments?
Legalization is oversimplified:proponents’ arguments. (paras. 11-15)
Legalization’s failure:opponents’ arguments. (paras. 16-18)
Criminalization is neither the right answer to this problem. (paras. 19-20)
Text Analysis
Essay 2
Legalization is oversimplified: proponents’ arguments.
1. common wisdom:
remove _____________ pumped into the under-world
reduce ____________ attraction
take away ____________
tax the sale and use money to ____________________
2. “deep thinkers”
Kurt Schmoke: _______________________________________
Milton Friedman: _______________________
immense profits
forbidden-fruit
criminal stigma
build more treatment centers
Prohibition of drugs is bailing out the ocean with a teaspoon.
Prohibition makes matters worse.
Text Analysis
Essay 2
Para.11:Unfortunately,legalizationsounds too goodto be true.
Para.12: Itsounds goodbecause it is simple…
Para.13: Deep thinkers…
Para.15:He wasnot alonein his sentiments.
Para.16: The simplicity…Unfortunately, thesimplebeauty…has anugly gaping hole.
Text Analysis
Essay 2
Such is the deliciously convenient reasoning that the drug problems can be resolved by legalizing it. (p11)
Deliciously: in a very pleasant or enjoyable way
deliciously convenient reasoning: delightful, easy way of thinking (not requiring effort)
Sentence explanations
It would immediately remove the immense profits drugs nowpump intothe criminal underworld, it would reduce the forbidden-fruit attraction drugs have for young people and it would take away the criminal stigmas that prevents many addicts from seeking help.
If drugs were sold at cost and legally, no one would buy them from pushers who sell them at high prices, and then the Mafia wouldn’t get huge profits from illegal drug dealing. Drugs would become less attractive to young people when they are not forbidden. Addicts would be happy to get help so as to kick the habit since it is no longer disgraceful for others to know they take drugs.
pump…into…to put a large amount of sth into, usu. at a high rate; pump sth into sb 强行向…灌输; 投入资金
(1)一位好的老师绝不能在课堂上向学生灌输大量的知识。
A good teacher should not pump abundant of ideas into students.(2)很多学生在考试前极力灌输一些知识在脑海里。
Many studentstried to pump some facts into their minds before the examination.
(3)那个商人将所有的钱都投入到了那个大工程。
Text Analysis
Essay 2
Last year the debate wasstirred anew when Baltimore Mayor Kurt Schmoke called for a serious national debate on the subject. (Para. 13)
Last year Baltimore Mayor Kurt Schmoke suggested a nation-wide debate on legalization, and it started off another debate.
bail out
to remove water;(从…中)往外舀水
bail out sth:跳伞,摆脱 ,逃避
bail sb out (of) sth :to help sb out of trouble
We can’t expect the government to bail out all the failing
companies.
Text Analysis
Essay 2
be alone in (doing) sth (常用于否定或疑问)
不是只有我一个人这么认为。
I am not alone in thinking our boss was wrong.
forty-fold: fold 后缀“乘以,或者…倍”
manifold
2. rebuttal: the noun form ofrebut, or refute; the action of contradicting. 反驳
A top lawyer is able to prove and give rebuttal in the lawsuit.
v: rebut
similar words: refute, contradict
Text Analysis
Essay 2
3. Repeal: n & V
an official or legal cancellation 废除,撤退,撤销等
Cf: repeal/ abolish/ cancel
Due to the rainy days, we have to _____ the football game.
After the civil war, American government_____ the system of slavery.
The Congress is discussing whether to _____ this law.
Repeal 为书面用语,用来撤销立法机关所通过的协议、法案、法律等
Abolish 正式用语,指通过法律或暴力彻底废除制度等。
cancel 的使用范围最为广泛,多用来取消会议、计划比赛等
Analogy: make an analogy; draw an analogy
4. miss the boat: fail to get the key to the problem

1. [口语]错过机会,坐失时机2. 没赶上,迟来3.[美国俚语]不能理会,不得要领
burn the boat :破釜沉舟,自绝退路
in the same boat处于同样(不利的)境况, 同舟共济
sail one's own boat[美]独立谋生, 依靠自己
Drugs are a symptom of deeper ills in certain segments of our society, particularly the improverished segments. (Para. 19)
an outward sign of a usually bad or undesirable condition
Widespread use of drugs is a sign of more serious social problems for some groups of the population, especially for the poor.
a separate part of
anything
symptom: sth showing that you are not healthy; a sign that a larger problem exists
The symptom of the children’s HFMD is the appearance of herpes and low fever.

Segment: 部分,区间,阶层等

impoverished: very poor; poor in quality
impoverished family/areas/land
impoverish/ impoverishment
Criminalization is neither the right answer to this problem.
Then what is the answer according to the author?
The quick fix is illusory because…
The slow fix is illusory because…
Text Analysis
Essay 2
Questions for Discussion
According to the author, what is theultimatecause of the drug problem? Do you agree?Does the author propose a possible solution to the drug problem? What solutions can you propose?
Text Analysis
Essay 2
Questionsforessay 3:
What is Charles Krauthammer’s attitudes towards legalization of drugs?
What did the author make an analogy with in order to say that drugs should be deglamorized?
What are his ideas of the drug problem and what are his suggested solutions?
Essay 3
What is the solution to the drug problem offered by Krauthammer?
Deglamorization. Drug problem can only be solved culturally.
What then are hismain arguments?
Is legalization a good solution? (paras. 21-26)
What should we do? (paras. 27-31)
Conclusion: four solutions. (para. 32)
Text Analysis
Essay 3
Is legalization a good solution?
1. What’s the author’s attitude towards legalization on the following issues?
drug law enforcement
comparison: illegal drugs vs. alcohol
relationship between legalization and drug use
2. Is legalization a good solution?

Text Analysis
Essay 3
1. enforcement: enforce
2. smuggle/smuggler
3. to boot:in addition;too;furthermore
It was a long film and an uninteresting one to boot.
He is dishonest, and a coward to boot.
Text Analysis
Essay 3
3. minimize:to reduce sth to the lowest level
minimum (min); minimal
maximize/maximum: to increase sth to the largest level

4. catastrophic:adj causing destruction or serious damage; extremely harmful
catastrophic results/ war/ nuclear weapons
similar words: disastrous/ ruinous/ devastating
5. outweigh: v to become important or greater than sth 比…更重(更重要),胜过,强过
On the whole, his accomplishments outweigh his faults.
结构类似的词:outdo, outcompete, outwit,outnumber,outshine6. permanent: adj lasting or existing for a long time
permanent job; permanent staff
同义词:everlasting;
反义词:impermanent, temporary
7. dwarf:v to make sth seem small or unimportant ; n very small persons
Shakespeare dwarfs other dramatists.

8. undercut:to sell goods at a lower price than one’s competitors; to make sth weaker or less effective
(喻)削弱;暗中破坏
Online bookstores canundercutretailers by 40%.
undercutone’s authority
What should we do?
1. Why does the author mention smoking?
changed image of smokers?
measures taken?
2. We should do the same to drugs…
attitude towards the “Just Say No to Drugs” campaign?
What does he mean by “cracking down hard on users”?
Text Analysis
Essay 3
Humphrey Bogart亨弗莱·鲍嘉
relentless:
adj (1) not stopping or getting less strong (2) refusing to give up or be less strict or severe
尽管出生于一个贫穷的家庭,但是他永无止境地勤奋学习。
Born into an impoverished family, he kept a relentless
deligence in his study.
相关词汇:relent (v) 减弱,变温和
近义词:persistent; unrelenting
Text Analysis
Essay 3
2.deglamorize:vto make sth less attractive than it seems
Word-building: de+glamorize
More examples: decrease, degrade, degeneration
Deglamorizes cigarettes/computer games/qq chat
Glamorize , V , to make sth attractive
Glamorous, charming/attractive
3. segregate:
(1) to isolate sth from another;
(2) to separate people of different races, sexes or religious from others; be~ from
翻译:
应该把吸烟和非吸烟区隔开。
按照法律,黑人被实行种族隔离
Extended vocabulary:
Segregated adj /Segregation n
Opposite word:integrate
Cf: segregate & separate
4. go after: (1) seek after (2) to hunt or search
追求, 设法得到; 追捕
They are both going after this job.
The police went after the murderer.
Here,try to stop
5. reverse: (v) to change sth completely; to change a decision, law to the opposite; to make the vehicle go backwards; (adj) opposite to sth mentioned
related words: reversal; reversible可逆转的,可翻转的,可两面穿的
phrases:a sharp reversal/ the reverse side of the coin/ reversible situation/reversible coat
6.crack down (hard) on: 竭力取缔,严厉打击
to be strict in making a group of people obey rules or laws 严厉打击,镇压
他们正在严厉查处酒后驾车。
They are cracking down hard on drunk driving.

政府承诺严厉惩治官员的受贿行为。
The government promised to crack down hard on the official’s bribery.
7go around
(1) to be shared among a group or to do all the things needed
Eventually, we will not have enough water to go around.
Are there enough books togo aroundthe whole class?
(2) go here and there; travel
Given enough time and money, I tend to go around the whole world.
Text Analysis
Essay 3
8. impose
(1) to introduce a new law, rule, tax etc be used
(2) to force sb/sth to have to deal with sth difficult
Impose limitations/restriction/constraints on(upon) sth
翻译:父母不要把自己的观点强加于孩子。
Related words: imposing adj 壮观的,使人印象深刻的
Imposition : n 征收,实施,不公平的要求
9. sanction: official orders or laws which limit the trade etc. E.g: impose trade sanction
10 confiscation: the act of taking sth away from sb as a punishment.
V confiscate
11. premium:
(1)an amount of money pain once or regularly for an insurancepolicy保险费
(2) an extra amount of money added to the basic rate额外费用,附加费
Phrases: set/put a premium on sb 重视,珍视
12. throw in
to add sth (to what you are selling) without increasing the price额外奉送,免费外加They offered me a weekend break in Paris, with free beerthrown in.
While you buy the shirt for $ 100, I’llthrow inthe necklace as well.
13.recreation:refreshment of your body or mind through a particular activity
similar words:pastime/hobby/entertainment
Text Analysis
Essay 3
1
Amarineis a member of an armed force, for example the U.S. Marine Corps or the Royal Marines, who is specially trained for military duties at sea as well as on land. 海军陆战队士兵
Discussion
What is Krauthammer’s opinion concerning each of the four solutions?
Text Analysis
Essay 3
Reinforcement
Writing
Discussion
Unit 6
How Do We Deal with the Drug Problem?
Do these different solutions represent different vested interests?
What would you say about the content, structure and language of the three essays?
How are the following methods used to support the arguments?
logic/close reasoning
facts
statistics
source of authority
commonsense
experience
basic principles
Reinforcement
Discussion
Believe it or not, many of the arguments can be borrowed
comfortably for discussions on other issues. Can you take a
position on one issue and defend your point with
some arguments from the text?
prostitution
gambling
smoking
Reinforcement
Writing
Debate
(1)To ban or to legalize?
(2)Should the fire crackers be banned?

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Unit--6-How-Do-We-deal-with-the-Drug-Problems--关于毒品问题