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Closing the GenderWage Gap
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Month Date, Year
The Wage Gap
In the United States, women on average earn 78 cents for every dollar their male counterparts makeWomen of color face an even greater disparityAfrican American women: 64 cents per white male dollarLatina women: 54 cents per white male dollarIn Canada, women on average earn 81 percent of what their male counterparts make
Closing the Gender Wage Gap
Pay Equity: A Jewish Issue
“You shall not defraud your fellow Israelite. You shall not commit robbery. The wages of a laborer shall not remain with you until morning.” (Leviticus 19:13)“And God created humans in God’s own image, in the image of God, God created them; male and female, God created them” (Genesis 1:27). We are all createdb’tzelemElohim, in the image of God, and we should all be treated equally
Closing the Gender Wage Gap
ExistingLegislation: U.S.
1963: Congress passes theEqual Pay Act, declaring that employers can no longer pay men and women different salaries for performing equal workAt the time, women on average earned 59 cents on the dollarThe wage gap has narrowed, but is nowhere near closed2009: TheLilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Actensures that individuals subjected to unlawful pay discrimination can assert their rights under the federal anti-discrimination lawsLedbetter v. Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co.(2007): Ledbetter could not sue because it had been more than 180 days since her first discriminatory paycheckBut—she did not learn she was being paid less until several years of workWith this law, each discriminatory paycheck resets the 180-day limit to file a claim
Closing the Gender Wage Gap
Existing Legislation: U.S.
April 8, 2014 (Equal Pay Day): President Obama took two executive actions to fight gender-based wage discrimination for federal contractors, covering about 1 in 5 workers in the U.S.Executive order: bans retaliation for disclosure of compensation information for all federal contractorsPresidential memorandum: calls on the Department of Labor to require federal contractors to submit compensation data by sex and raceIn the States: Some states have no laws (Mississippi, Alabama), and others have strong protections against unequal pay (New York, West Virginia)
Closing the Gender Wage Gap
Existing Legislation: Canada
Canadian Human Rights Act:men and women within the same organization must paid equally for substantively equal workEqual Wages Guidelines:identifies four factors to evaluate the value of work—effort, responsibility, skill, and working conditions—and elaborates on additional assessment criteriaCanadaLabourCode:givesLabourProgram inspectors authority to look into an organization’s records to collect data relevant to pay equity and launch a subsequent investigationProvinces have commissions or initiatives dedicated to pay equity
Closing the Gender Wage Gap
Legislative Update: U.S.
Paycheck Fairness Act(S.862/H.R.1619)Close loopholes in the Equal Pay ActBar retaliation against workers who discuss their wagesProvide the same protections against sex-based pay discrimination that exist for discrimination on the basis of race or national originApril 9, 2014: The Senate filibustered the Paycheck Fairness Act, 53-44September 10, 2014: 73 Senators from both parties voted to advance the Paycheck Fairness ActSeptember 15, 2015: The Senate follows with a 52-40 vote not to advance the bill any furtherProcedural maneuver?
Closing the Gender Wage Gap
Legislative Update: Canada
Pay Equity Task Force RecommendationsAct(C-389)Requires the government to implement recommendations from a May 2004 report, which have not been addressedCreate a new pay equity commission, a tribunal for hearings, and a pay equity adjudication systemStrengthen advocacy servicesEnsure a deeper commitment to researchInthe provinces: five of ten have pay equity lawsManitoba, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island and Quebec.The laws are slightly different and apply to different people
Closing the Gender Wage Gap
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Closing the Gender Wage Gap - wrj.org