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History of the Church
Part II
Re-Cap of Part I:Forces that Weakened the Catholic Church’s Stronghold in Europe
Crusades– “Holy Wars” not so holyGreat Schism– Bitterness between East/WestInquisition– Only True Believers ClubThe Plague– Death Comes to EveryoneGreat Western Schism– Will the real Pope please stand up?
And some other factors. . .
Rise in Nationalism–Don’ttell us what to do!Selling of Indulgences–Payyour way to Heaven?
Popular PreachersReformerswithinthe Church – JeanGerson, Cardinal Nicholas ofCusaHumanists – Thomas More, John Fisher, John Colet, ErasmusProtesting Men who went public with their grievances. . .
Protestant Reformation:Many voices want Reform!
Martin Luther - Germany
From priest (Augustinian Monk) to ProtestorSin really bothered himFelt like a “dung hill”Only grace could redeemIndulgence selling REALLY bothered him!Faith or Good Works?Justification by Faith Alone
Tetzel – Indulgences for Sale]
Dominican Friar sent to Germany to raise money to re-build St. Peter’s"As soon as the coin in the coffer rings, the soul from purgatory [also attested as 'into heaven'] springs.“Luther hated this! Wrote a long letter to the Bishop
Sampling of Luther’s Main Gripes : Became the “Ninety-five Theses”
FAITH ALONE SAVES, Not good worksForgiveness comes only from God, not from the church(as ingrantingindulgences)Church “happens” wherever and whenever the Gospel is proclaimed purelyNo Need for Pope/Hierarchy – Authority comes from Scripture, notClergy; “sola scriptura”No Need for sacraments except Baptism and Eucharist
Luther –WittenburgCastle –Posted The 95 Theses and He was Done!
Excommunication – 1521 – Pope Leo Xat Diet of Worms, Germany
Guttenberg’s Revolutionary Invention: The Printing Press
Used the printing pressto circulate his 95 Theses – everyone in Germany had themTranslatedthe Bible into German,printed it, putinto the hands of anyone who wanted itWrote a catechism, composed hymns, created liturgies and spirited theological writingsMany priests/nuns left the monasteries and convents to follow himIdeas embraced quickly throughout Germany, Switzerland, Scandinavia
Luther’s Opponents
Argued with Luther : Are we dung hills or are we divine?Humanists like Erasmus were adamant that FREE WILL is the greatest of human giftsStayed faithful to the church and worked to reform from withinCondemned Luther for throwing out Sacred TraditionNot even the reformers could agree!
Meanwhile. . .HuldrychZwingli – Switzerland – Luther Didn’t Go Far Enough
Zwingli’s Main Gripes –Luther Plus More
Fasting during Lent – Hated It!Statues and Images – Hated Them!Religious Music and Art – Hated them!Sacraments, mass, Eucharist – Hated Them!Hierarchy –ReallyHated it!We do NOT have free will; rather, salvation is pre-determined
Meanwhile. . .John Calvin – France/Switzerland. . .continued the split
Calvin’s Main Gripes & Ideas ~ Luther plus a little Zwingli and More
“Sola Scriptura” - Scripture is the ONE and ONLY authority (NOT the Pope)Unity of Church realized through representative assemblies (individualscanNOTbe trusted!)Though there are titles, there is NO hierarchyPeople have the right to choose their own leadersChurch is SUPREME over theState
More Calvinistic Ideas. . .
Wrote “Institutes of Christian Religion”- the first written down theology of the new thoughtNEW DOCTRINE: PREDESTINATION – LOVED IT!Thriftiness, cleanliness, prosperity – Loved them! Signs of God’s presence and blessingCapitalism, individualism, democracy – Loved it!Influenced Puritanism, Presbyterianism, Reformed Churches and MANY churches in America
And then there wasKing Henry VIII - England
Henry’s Main Gripes and Actions:
Wanted an annulment from his wife, Catherine of Aragon – Pope hated it!Excommunicatedfor his marriage to Anne BoleynAct of Supremacy – 1534 – Parliament declared him head of the ChurchHenry appointed Cranmer Archbishop of Canterbury and so. . . . heRuled Henry’s marriage to Catherine invalid and their child, Mary, not an heir to the throneSeparation from Church -NOT DOCTRINAL THIS TIME! But Church and State are ONE AGAIN
Meanwhile, Henry was busy trying to find the right woman who would bear him a son. . . Not much success!
Catherine ofAragan– married 24 years; annulledAnne Boleyn – married 3 years - executedJane Seymour – married 1 year - died in childbirthAnne of Cleaves – married 6mos- AnnulledCatherine Howard – married 1 year - executedCatherinePaar– married 4 years,untlHenry’s death
Further Splintering: Radical Ecclesiology of the Left Wing
Evangelicalism: Restore the First Century Church and make it separate from the world!Spiritualists– Spirit alone constitutes; no need for Scripture, structures, voluntary communityAnabaptists– re-baptism into early church; no organization, no infant baptism, highly moralistic, pacifistic, nonviolent; Quakers, Amish, Mennonites, etc.Unitarians-Some denied Trinity
Counter Reformation: Council of Trent1545-63 (A long Process)
Called by Pope Paul II – Reactionary?Re-fined the Catholic position on sacraments, clergy, Scripture, doctrine of faith and grace, salvationEstablished a seminary systemReformed the Liturgy into a “Grand Spectacle;” No Laity involvementRevised the Latin “Vulgate” version of the BibleReinforced hierarchyAt the Heart: Society of Jesus (Jesuits)Emphasized Devotions and Practices (ex: Veneration of the saints, Marian devotions, Eucharistic Adoration)Reforms Shaped the Church for 400 years!
Ignatius of Loyola – Society of Jesus(the Jesuits) began the Missionary Movement All Over the World
Influence of The Enlightenment: A Superfluous Church?
IN EUROPE 1789Rene Descartes,Immanuel Kant, Diderot,Voltaire. RousseauFRENCH REVOLUTION’s 3-Point Agenda: Liberty, Equality, and FraternityFreed Church from feudalismDestroyed monasteries, churches, art
DEISTS INAMERICA: 1770’sBen Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, Thomas Paine, other Founding FathersAMERICAN REVOLUTIONIndividualism, Freedom of thought, action, pursuit of happinessSeparation of Church and StateAnti-Catholicism in the colonies
Influence of Science and Philosophy on Religion
ComplexityGalileo and Copernicus declared heretics!Science “debunks” what was being taught as TruthNo more superstition!Rise in Secularization – people identified more with society than church
PolarizationThe Missionary Movement – religion or culture?Individualism and Democratic ideas counter to Church hierarchyEducation and Modernism Push Back
American Catholicism: The Carroll Brothers: John and Charles
Charles a patriot –signed the Dec. of Ind.John the first Bishop of BaltimoreDesired to make the American church more democratic – denied!Helped establish the church’s legitimacy
The Modern Church of 19thCentury
19thCentury InfluencesDemocratic Ideas of Freedom of Speech, Press, due process, etc.Papal States strippedQuestion: What is the role of the church in society?
First Vatican Council 1869 or: It’s All About the Pope!Papal Primacy(apostolic succession,vicarship, ministry)Papal Infallibility –immunity from error on matters of faith and morals; “ex-cathedra”
Down with Modernism!20thCentury Developments
Influence of modern thinking about nature of TruthSome Catholics wanted reform! Modern church needs modern waysIdeas were condemned by Pope Pius X (1907)Upheld the foundations of the faith in all matters – DOGMA DOES NOT CHANGE!(butour understanding of it does)
Pre-Vatican II ( 1940’s – 60’s)
A Great Divide – Protestants and Catholics did NOT dialogue; much division, anti-Catholicism in AmericaCatholics still in the “fortress mentality,” defending the faith like soldiers of ChristEra of “Pay, Pray, Obey!” Formula CatholicsLaity NOT involved. . .only ClergyIs the Church irrelevant? Left Behind? Superstitious?New Theology Emerges ecumenically: Dietrich Bonhoeffer, KarlRahner, EdwardSchillebeecks,HerideLubac, Hans Kung, etc.And then, most importantly:
St.PopeJohn XXIII – 1958-1963
Second Vatican Council: 1962-63
Called to “renew the Church” – “A New Pentecost”Diplomats, Press, Non-Catholics, ecumenical observers and Women were all invited to be thereChurch re-defined from the inside out (twin documents: LumenGentiumandGaudiemetSpesChurch called “people of God” as sacramentand servantTelevised; First council to have electricity!
Vatican II Summary Chart
Pre-Vatican II EcclesiologyChurch as institutionChurch as hierarchyMission: word and sacramentChurch as absolute monarchyTriumphalismChurch = Kingdom
Vatican II EcclesiologyChurch as mystery/sacramentChurch as People of GodMission: word, sacrament, servantChurch as a communionChurch as ecumenical communityChurch as eschatological community
The Church of the Future:Where will we be in 2020 and beyond?
Pondering the Future!
Driving Forces
Growing number of people with no religious affiliationMore people who are “spiritual” but not “religious”Declining Participation in ChurchesIncreasing Diversity and PluralismInfluence of IndividualismChanging Structures of Family LifeDeclining Social Influence of ChurchIncreasing Impact of Internet and Social Media
Church of the Millennium
Great Values Shift (See handout)What are your values?When you die, what do you want to leave as a legacy? What will be said of the time you had here on earth?
Jesus Said:
“I will be with you until the end of time. . .”





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