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The Diversity of LifeI. A Brief History of LifeII. Classifying LifeIII. The Prokaryote Domains: Bacteria and ArchaeaIV. The Domain EukaryaD. Plants:1. Green algal ancestors
The Diversity of LifeI. A Brief History of LifeII. Classifying LifeIII. The Prokaryote Domains: Bacteria and ArchaeaIV. The Domain EukaryaD. Plants:1. Green algal ancestors
Alternation of generation
IV. The Domain EukaryaD. Plants:1. Green algal ancestors2. Colonization of Land: Environmental Differences
Aquatic HabitatsTerrestrialWater available DesiccatingSunlight absorbed Sunlight availableNutrients at Depth Nutrients availableBuoyant Less SupportiveLow oxygen High O2CO2diffuses slowly CO2diffuses quickly
IV. The Domain EukaryaD. Plants:1. Green algal ancestors2. Colonization of Land: Environmental Differences3. Plant Evolution – Adapting to Land
IV. The Domain EukaryaD. Plants:1. Green algal ancestors2. Colonization of Land: Environmental Differences3. Plant Evolution – Adapting to Land4. “Non-tracheophytes”a. Groupsi. Liverwortsii. Hornwortsiii. Mosses
http://taggart.glg.msu.edu/bot335/bryo.htm
http://www.bio.miami.edu/dana/226/226F08_14print.html
http://www.biologyjunction.com/plant_taxonomy_bi.htm
IV. The DomainEukaryaD. Plants:1. Green algal ancestors2. Colonization of Land: Environmental Differences3. Plant Evolution – Adapting to Land4. “Non-tracheophytes”a. Groupsb. Characteristics-lackvascular tissues (xylem and phloem) - inefficient water transport - short- lack true organs (defined by the presence of vascular tissue)- some have a very thin waxy cuticle- some havestomates
http://www.brynmawr.edu/biology/franklin/Bio103Key.htm
IV. The DomainEukaryaD. Plants:4. “Non-tracheophytes”a. Groupsb. Characteristics- release flagellated sperm directly into the environment- have a dominant gametophyte generation, and a short-lived, ephemeralsporophyte
http://ux.brookdalecc.edu/fac/biology/lab/102/lab22.html
http://mediatheek.thinkquest.nl/~ll125/en/life-3.htm
http://hudsonvalleygeologist.blogspot.com/2010/10/oldest-land-plants.html
Liverwort spores from Argentina, 470 myaRubinstein, et. al. 2010. Early Middle Ordovician evidence for land plants in Argentina (eastern Gondwana).New Phytologist188: 365-369
IV. The Domain EukaryaD. Plants:4. “Non-tracheophytes”a. Groupsb. Characteristicsc. History
IV. The DomainEukaryaD. Plants:4. “Non-tracheophytes”5.Tracheophytesa. Characteristics
http://manravbioeducation.blogspot.com/2007/08/transport-of-materials-in-plants.html
Vascular tissue:
Xylem: water upPhloem: sugars down
IV. The DomainEukaryaD. Plants:4. “Non-tracheophytes”5.Tracheophytesa. Characteristics
http://manravbioeducation.blogspot.com/2007/08/transport-of-materials-in-plants.html
Vascular tissue:
Xylem: water upPhloem: sugars down
IV. The DomainEukaryaD. Plants:4. “Non-tracheophytes”5.Tracheophytesa. Characteristics
Dominant Sporophyte
http://www.plantbiology.siu.edu/plb304/lecture07pterid/ferns.html
http://universe-review.ca/R10-23-plants.htm
http://mediatheek.thinkquest.nl/~ll125/en/life-3.htm
IV. The Domain EukaryaD. Plants:4. Non-tracheophytes5. Tracheophytesb. Groupsi. Lycopodiophytes
IV. The Domain EukaryaD. Plants:4. Non-tracheophytes5. Tracheophytesb. Groupsi. Lycopodiophytes
Barangwanathia– 420 mya
http://www.geol.umd.edu/~tholtz/G102/102mpal2.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Meyers_b15_s0272b.jpg
Lepidodendronwas a canopy species (100 ft tall, 3ft in diameter) in the Carboniferous Period (360-300 mya); ferns and other Lycophytes were in the understory.
IV. The Domain EukaryaD. Plants:4. Non-tracheophytes5. Tracheophytesb. Groupsi. Lycopodiophytes
http://ashscience7.wikispaces.com/Plant+Classification
http://mygarden.uphero.com/ferns06.htm
Lycopodium, a “Clubmoss”
Selaginella, a “Spikemoss”
Isoetes,a“quillwort”
IV. The Domain EukaryaD. Plants:4. Non-tracheophytes5. Tracheophytesb. Groupsi. Lycopodiophytes
IV. The Domain EukaryaD. Plants:4. “Non-tracheophytes”5. Tracheophytesb. Groupsi. Lycopodiophytes: (one vein per leaf )ii. Euphyllophytes: (multiple veins per leaf)
http://www.doctortee.com/dsu/tiftickjian/bio101/lvps.html
IV. The DomainEukaryaD. Plants:4. “Non-tracheophytes”5.Tracheophytesb. Groupsi.Lycopodiophytesii.Monilophytes- Characteristics:Vascular (tracheophytes) with true leaves (euphyllophytes)Most release spores to the environment from sporangiaHave swimming spermDo NOT have seeds (distinguishing them from the other majorcladewithin theeuphyllophytes, the spermatophytes)
Ophioglossales
Psilotales
Equisitales
Osmundales
Salvinales
Cyatheales
Polypodiales
IV. The DomainEukaryaD. Plants:4. “Non-tracheophytes”5.Tracheophytesb. Groupsi.Lycopodiophytesii.Monilophytes- Diversity
IV. The DomainEukaryaD. Plants:4. “Non-tracheophytes”5.Tracheophytesb. Groupsi.Lycopodiophytesii.Monilophytes- Diversity- Life Cycle
http://www.science-art.com/image/?id=3553&search=1&pagename=fern_life_cycle
http://www.uic.edu/classes/bios/bios100/summer2003/fernlifecycle.htm
http://universe-review.ca/R10-23-plants.htm
5.Tracheophytesb. Groupsi.Lycopodiophytesii.Monilophytes- Evolutionary HistoryEvolve during the Devonian
http://www.wemyss.ukfossils.co.uk/Wemyss-Fossils-Geology/geology-guide.htm
5.Tracheophytesb. Groupsi.Lycopodiophytesii.Monilophytes- Radiate and Diversify during the Carboniferous, withLycopodiophytes
http://forum.nationstates.net/viewtopic.php?f=20&t=34345&start=50
5.Tracheophytesb. Groupsi.Lycopodiophytesii.Monilophytes
Sequestration of cellulose (carbon in sediments caused CO2concentration to drop; oxygen rose as photosynthesis > respiration
http://www.texas-geology.com/Texas%20Post%20Triassic%20Dinosaurs.html
5.Tracheophytesb. Groupsi.Lycopodiophytesii.Monilophytes
The unification of Pangaea during the Permian dried the climate
http://www.search4dinosaurs.com/carr_Permian_riverside.html
5.Tracheophytesb. Groupsi.Lycopodiophytesii.Monilophytesiii. Gymnosperms
Giving an edge to organisms that had finally cut ties with aquatic habitats: the gymnosperms and reptiles
5.Tracheophytesb. Groupsi.Lycopodiophytesii.Monilophytesiii. Gymnosperms- characteristics
Seeds:seeds evolved in ancestral progymnosperms and “seed ferns”. Dispersal phase of life cycle is bigger and fortified with nutrients, increasing the probability of survival of the diploid embryo.
http://botit.botany.wisc.edu/courses/botany_130/Diversity/plants/Vascular_Plants/Coniferophyta/images/
Seed coat – original sporophyte ovuleEndosperm – haploid gametophyteEmbryo – new sporophyte generation
5.Tracheophytesb. Groupsi.Lycopodiophytesii.Monilophytesiii. Gymnosperms- characteristics
Pollen:the male gametophyte carries sperm to the egg; no more swimming sperm and need for surface water! (in most gymnosperms)
http://www.flickr.com/photos/chrisashurst/4630312934/
http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/webb/bot201/conifers/conifer_lecture.htm
5. Tracheophytesb. Groupsi. Lycopodiophytesii. Monilophytesiii. Gymnosperms- Diversity
http://sorokaapbio1011.blogspot.com/
Common Conifers:Pines SpruceFir HemlockCedars CypressYew LarchRedwood
http://www.moplants.com/blog/?p=1077
Cycads
Ginkgo
http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/seedplants/ginkgoales/ginkgo.html
Gnetales
http://dbpedia.neofonie.de/browse/rdf-type:Plant/rdf-type:Gnetophytes/
Conifers*
5. Tracheophytesb. Groupsi. Lycopodiophytesii. Monilophytesiii. Gymnosperms- Diversity
Conifers
The dominant group of gymnosperms today, with about 600 of the 900 gymnosperm species. Both pollen and ovules borne in cones. Representatives include the largest and longest lived plants on earth.
PinesYewsSpruceFirRedwoodsSequoiaCypressHemlockCedarJuniperLarch
5.Tracheophytesb. Groupsi.Lycopodiophytesii.Monilophytesiii. Gymnosperms- Life cycle
http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/webb/bot201/conifers/MicroGameto240Lab.jpg
http://longleafs.info/pages/ecosystem.html
http://www.ontariossunsetcountry.ca/category.cfm/code/300/tbid/1
http://friendsoftheinyo.org/cms/index.php?option=com_content&view=category&layout=blog&id=11&Itemid=4
Still dominate in harsh, dry, or cold environments
5. Tracheophytesb. Groupsi. Lycopodiophytesii. Monilophytesiii. Gymnospermsiv. Angiosperms- characteristics
Flower:leaf-like whorls fulfill different functions. Collectively, the ancestral adaptive value was to attract animal pollinators.
http://kvhs.nbed.nb.ca/gallant/biology/biology.html
Pollinators forage non-randomly, and they can learn. So, by bribing pollinators with nectar, and advertising the location with large colorful petals, pollinators learn to visit flowers for food – and they “trapline”, going from flower to flower.Pollen transport is much more efficient than wind dispersal; less pollen is needed (but there are additional costs of flower ad nectar production.
Flies are attracted to flowers that smell like carrion.
Flowers can evolve to limit pollination to a particular type (or even species) of pollinator.
Hummingbirds are attracted to red tubular flowers, where the nectar is too deep for most insects to reach
This increases the chance that the NEXT flower the pollinator visits will be a member of the same plant species.
Flowers can evolve to limit pollination to a particular type (or even species) of pollinator.
Butterfly flowers offer a place to stand and probe many flowers from one place
Many bat flowers are large, to receive the head of the bat. White is common for these flowers that open at night.
Flowers can evolve to limit pollination to a particular type (or even species) of pollinator.
Orchids are one of the most derived groups of plants, and they show the most specialized flowers
In some flowering plants, the flowers have become very reduced – they no longer attract pollinators – the plants have returned to a wind-pollinated lifestyle.
Oak flowers
Ragweed flowers
5. Tracheophytesb. Groupsi. Lycopodiophytesii. Monilophytesiii. Gymnospermsiv. Angiosperms- characteristics
Fruit:modification to ovary tissue (typically) to attract animals to consume fruit and disperse seeds.
http://sharon-taxonomy2010-p2.wikispaces.com/Angiosperms
http://technabob.com/blog/2008/03/07/edible-apple-logo-reminds-me-of-the-fruit-salad-days/
Plants with dry, wind dispersed seeds are more common in fields, or in canopy trees. Fleshy fruits dispersed by animals are more common in forest understory and forest edges, where animals are more common.
5. Tracheophytesb. Groupsi. Lycopodiophytesii. Monilophytesiii. Gymnospermsiv. Angiosperms- characteristics- life cycle
http://bioweb.uwlax.edu/bio203/s2009/herman_jaci/Reproduction.htm
5. Tracheophytesb. Groupsi. Lycopodiophytesii. Monilophytesiii. Gymnospermsiv. Angiosperms- characteristics- life cycle- diversity (90% of plant species)
http://www.flickr.com/photos/colbugspotter/3373136155/
http://www.hiltonpond.org/ThisWeek040622.html
http://www.humanflowerproject.com/index.php/weblog/2006/01/P8/
http://thebathduck.wordpress.com/category/garden/
5. Tracheophytesb. Groupsi. Lycopodiophytesii. Monilophytesiii. Gymnospermsiv. Angiosperms- characteristics- life cycle- diversity(90% of plant species)
Amborella– the most primitive flowering plant, of New Caledonia
Nymphaea– water lilies
Magnoliids - ~9000 sp of Magnolias, Laurels, Black Pepper, Nutmeg…
Monocots– ~60,000 species of grasses, grains, palms, bamboos, lilies, irises, orchids, tulips, etc.
Eudicots – over 200,000 species! From vegetables to roses, trees (that aren’t gymnosperms, palms or Magnolias), asters, etc.
5. Tracheophytes6. SummaryAlgae – aquaticnon-tracheophytes: cuticleLycopodiophytes: vascular tissue and dominance of the sporophyte (tall)Monilophytes: true leavesGymnosperms: Seeds and pollenAngiosperms: Flowers and fruit

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