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Body and behavior - Houston County High School

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Body and behavior
Chapter 6
Standard II:BiopsychologicalBiological basis of behaviorIIA-1.1 Structure and function on neuronIIA- 2.1 Organization of the nervous system
The nervous System
Controls your movement, emotions, thinking, and behavior (almost all you do)Never at restDivided into 2 parts:Central Nervous System (CNS)– the brain and spinal cordPeripheral Nervous System (PNS)– nerves branching beyond the spinal cord
Nervous System
All parts are protected:Brain– skull and layers of sheathing (coating)Spinal cord– the vertebraePeripheral– layers of sheathing- nerves about as thick as a pencilExtremities– nerves get smaller and smaller
Strips of long cells that carry messages to and from the brainCarry messages by chemical-electrical signalsNeuron can “fire” over and over againMessages are sent from neuron to neuronBody contains millions
Parts of a neuron
4 Basic Parts:DendritesThe cell body (contains the nucleus)An axonAxon terminals
Short, thin fibers that protrude from the cell bodyReceive impulses (messages) from other neurons and sends them to the cell body
Single extensionCarries impulses from cell body to the axon terminalsUsually short, but can be several feet longMyelin sheath (white fatty substance) insulates and protects the axon; can speed thetransmition
Axon Terminal
Branch out at the end of the axonRelease neurotransmitters to stimulate dendrites of the next neuronPositioned opposite of the dendrite of another neuron
Synapse & Neurotransmitters
Synapse– space between the neurons; transmits messages to the next neuronNeurotransmitters– chemicals released by neurons- locks or excites receptorsEx:endorphin – inhibits painnorepinephrine – involved with memory and learning
Afferent, Efferent, and Interneurons
Afferent neuron(sensory neurons)– relay messages from the sense organs (eyes, nose, skin) to the brainEfferent neuron(motor neurons)– send signals from the brain to the glands and musclesInterneurons– processes signals only to other neurons
Somatic Nervous System (SNS)– the part of peripheral nervous system that controls voluntary activities (skeletal muscles)Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)– part of the nervous system that controls involuntary activitiesEx: heartbeat, breathing, digestion, etc.
The brain
Composed of 3 parts:HindbrainMidbrainForebrain
Rear base of the skull; controls basic processes of lifeIncludes:Cerebellum (behind spinal cord)– controls posture, balance and voluntary movementsMedulla– controls heart rate, breathing, and reflexesPons– bridge between spinal cord and brain and produces chemicals needed for sleep
Small, above the ponsIntegrates sensory information and sends it upwardsMedulla and pons extends upward into the midbrainReticular Activating System (RAS)-spans across medulla, pons, and midbrain- Alerts brain of incoming signals and involved in sleep/wake cycle
Brains central coreIncludes:Thalamus– integrates sensory informationHypothalamus– controls hunger, thirst, and changes in temperature
Cerebral Cortex & Cerebrum
Cortex- Outer layer of forebrainCerebrum– inner layerHigher thinking processesGives you ability to learn and store complex and abstract informationSite of conscious thinking processes
Limbic System
Core of forebrainRegulates our emotions and motivationsIncludes:Hypothalamus, thalamus, hippocampus, and amygdalaAmygdala -controls violent emotions such as rage and fearHippocampus: -formation of memories
Lobes of the Brain
Cerebrum – 2 hemispheresConnected by:Corpus callosumEach hemisphere has deep grooves = regions or lobesOccipital lobe– visionParietal lobe– body sensationsTemporal lobe– hearing, memory, emotion, speakingFrontal lobe– organization, planning, creative thinking
Hemispheres (Left & Right)
Corpus callosum– carries messages back and forth between the 2 hemispheresRight:Controls left side of body- Nonverbal, spatial, and holisticLeft:Controls right side of body- Verbal, Mathematical, Analytic
Corpus Callosum
Can be severed = Split-Brain OperationNow have “2” brains; operate independently, no communication between the two sides
How Psychologists Study the Brain
Record electrical activity in brain –EEG- wires and electrodes attached to a machineStimulation– “make” neurons fire on certain parts of brain and record; determine functionLesions– cutting or destroying part of brain to see if animal behaves differentlyAccidents– learn from brain trauma and tragedies
CT scans– pinpoint injuries and deteriorationPET scans– capture picture of brain as different parts are being usedMRI– able to see/study activity and structures- combines benefits of CT and PET scans





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Body and behavior - Houston County High School