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Socio-Cultural Issues Affecting Performance
Contemporary IssuesEthics and Deviancein Sport
Learning Objectives
Learning Objective:Understand the effects of drugs, violence and gambling in sportLearningOutcomes:All:Describethe types of drugs/doping, reasons for and strategies to prevent violence and the effects of gambling in sportMost:Explain,givingsportingexamples, the effects of drugs, violence and gambling in sportSome:Evaluatethe effects of drugs, violence and gambling in sport, on the performer and the sport
Key Terms
Doping debate – should athletes use drugs? history of Olympic drug cheats Armstrong – I’d do it again
Legal supplements vs Illegal drugs and doping
Legal supplements vs Illegal drugs and doping
Many sports performers use legal supplements to maximise training and performance in sport. Even these could be viewed by some people as cheating since they aid performance, but they are accepted by sports administrators because they do not significantly enhance performance or significantly affect the performer’s health and well-beingLegal supplements – e.g. vitamins and minerals are freely available. However some manufacturers claims that they help sports performance are based on questionable or conflicting research. Such supplements may not be safe to use, particularly in high doses.
Legal supplements vs Illegal drugs and doping
Legal supplements vs Illegal drugs and doping
Reasons why elite performers use illegal drugs / doping
Pressure to succeed (from coaches, peers, parentsetc)Desire to winPolitical pressures (Russia/East Germany – state sponsored doping regime)Monetary rewards (prize money / sponsorship)StatusEveryone else is taking them so why shouldn’t I?
Consequences / implications to society, sport, performers
Health issuesBanned / stripped of medalsSports become tainted, resulting in a struggle to gain sponsorship, and a loss of public supportSponsors are reluctant to lend their brand to athletes who are under suspicionDamaging press reports leads to supporters becoming disaffectedIt reflects the culture of society – seen as corrupt
Strategies to stop the use of illegal drugs and doping in sport
WADAList of banned substancesResearchRegular random drug testingEducationPressure from coaches/other athletesStricter punishments for drug useStripped of medalsBanned fromthe sport(potentiallywhole nations)
Violence – intense physical force that is directed towards harming another individual and can cause injury or death violence in sport
Implications of violence to society, sport and performers
Role models – children learn violent behavioursCriminal punishmentLose sponsorshipBanned – from sport or watching itMakes the sport look bad
Causes of violence in relation to players and spectators
‘Win at all costs’ mentalityAggressionFrustrationReflection on societyDrugs / alcoholRivalryMediaDeindivduation
Strategies to prevent violence in relation to players and spectators
EducateRules – enforced by referees and coachesCriminal investigationsBanning violent players / spectatorsFinesRole modelsCCTV
Gambling is a big business worldwide and has become truly global – the growingavailabliityof the internet has given rise to the rapid onset of gambling online.Match fixingBriberyIllegal sports betting
Match fixing / Bribery / illegal betting
Match fixing - When a sports competition is played to a completely or partly determined result. It is against the lawe.g. South Africa cricket captainHansieCronje admitted taking a £68,000 payment from bookmakers for providing them with match information to fix the results of games. He was banned from the sport.e.g. 1915 football match – ManUtdbeat Liverpool 2-1 at Old Trafford, the visitors missed a penalty. An investigation was launched after complaints from bookmakers following a run of bets on the correct score line with a goal in each half.e.g. a businessman was convicted of being involved in an Asian betting scam when a series of floodlights failed in top-flight English matches in 1997, they failed at points in the game where the scores were level, a result favourable to the Far East betting syndicate.Jockeys are banned from betting on all horse racing, while trainers can back their own horse to win, but not lose.Spot fixing – when a specific aspect of a sports competition is illegally pre-determined e.g. a football player being sent off at a particular period of the game, or a cricket bowler delivering a wide at a particular point during a game.List ofmatchfixing incidents - fixing -





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