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_-Chapter 18

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Chapter 18
Cooking principals
What is cooking?
Is the process of preparing food for eating by applying heatThe ability to cook food meant a longer, healthier lifeFoods are cooked because:Cooked food is safer to eatCooked food is more digestibleThe texture, taste aroma, and appearance of foods are improved
What happens to foods as they are cooked
Microorganisms are destroyedMost bacteria, fungi, and molds are killed by temperatures above 135Once cooked to this temperature it must be held at this tempConnective tissue in meats breaks downHeat is used to make tough pieces of meat and poultry tender and easier to eatConnective tissues are tough fibers that hold the muscles together, and becomes tender when it is properly cookedProteins coagulateWhen heated many solidify or become firm.Coagulation is the reason the texture of many foods change when cooked
Fibers in vegetables break downMakes up the cell structure of most plants are broken down with heatThis makes cooked vegetables tender and release nutrientsStarches absorb liquidAre used to thicken liquids such as sauces and soupsMany starches must be heated in order for the thickening process to take placeWhen starches are combined with a hot liquid, they absorb the liquid like a sponge and swell in a process called gelatinizationFlavors blend and changeFlavors change when raw food is cookedThe most common flavor change is the caramelization of sugars, resulting in richer, more complex aroma and flavorFlavors of proteins are also changed by heat, amino acids change when heated create new flavorsIt also helps to blend or marry the flavors multiple ingredients
Effects of overcooking
Monitoring timing and temperature is essential to achieve the proper degree of donenessThings that happen if food is overcooked:Texture is destroyed and foods become mushy and disintegrate, or tough and stringyProteins will curdle or toughenMoisture is lostSugars burn causing a bitter tasteGreen vegetables loose colorNutrients are lost and destroyed
Methods of heat transfer
How heat is transferred to the food has a distinct effect on how the finished product will turn outCooking methods use conduction, convection, or radiationConduction:Is the transfer of heat energy from one object to another through direct contactHeat is conducted from the heating element through pots and pans to the foodConvection:Is the manner in which heat energy travels through liquids and gases.Natural convection occurs when warm air rises to the top of the oven when a warmer liquid rises to the top of the potConvection oven circulates air with a fan
Radiation:Is the transfer of heat energy through wavesNo conductor is necessary to cook with radiationA broiler transfers heat to food by a means of radiationMicrowaves cook food by radiation, through not heat radiation
Cooking methods
Methods used to cook foods can be classified as:Dry heatMoist-heatCombination methods- combine both dry heat and moist heat in the same recipeSome cooking methods transfer heat using two or more of these
Dry heat methods:
Transfer heat to food by conduction, hot air convection, or radiationMany dry heat methods begin with a high temperature to create browning and improve flavorThey do not break down fibers or connective tissues as well as moist methodsThis type of cooking is often used with tender productsDry heat methods include sautéing panfrying, deep frying, grilling, broiling, roasting, and baking
Means to quickly cook an item in a small amount of hot fat over high heatSauté in French means to jumpSautéing is traditionally done in asauteuse, and it can also be done in a griddle or in a wokMeat, poultry, seafood, vegetables, and starches can all be sautéedSautéing transfers heat through conductionSweating is cooking food in a small amount of fat using low heat in order to soften the food without browning, typically used with onions, garlic, mirepoix.
Uses hot fat to cook a food itemIt cooks the food in enough hot fat to cover it halfwayThe food is turned during the cooking process in order to cook the food completelyMay also be called shallow fat fryingLarge or thick pieces of meat, fish or poultry can be pan friedHeat is transferred through conduction
Deep frying
Is a method that cooks food in enough fat to fully cover themEnough fat must be used in order to have proper cooking, if too little is used it is hard to maintain the fats high temperature when food is addedResults from not using enough oil is a limp and greasy rather than crispMost deep fried foods are coated with flour, breading, or batter before being friedThis method transfers heat by convection
Cooking method that uses radiation from a heat source located below the foodCan be cooked over a variety of heat sources, gas, electric burners, charcoal, or hard woodJuices dripping from the food on the flames creates smoke, which is often used to add flavor to the foodIt produces a robust flavor and is a healthy way to cook
Uses radiation from a heat source located above the foodOften used as a finishing process to brown cooked foodsGratinermeans to brown a foods productBrowned foods are often described by the French term au Gratin
Was originally done by turning meat placed on a spit or skewer over the radiant heat of a fireToday it is mostly done in the ovenCooks food by surrounding it with hot air, during cooking the food is uncovered so the moisture released can evaporateThe product to be roasted is placed on a rack so air can circulate evenly on all sides
Baking is done in an ovenIs used to cook foods with a certain amount of moisture, the moisture might be a stock, sauce, or custardBaked products are often cooked covered to keep the moisture in the productBoth baking and roasting use a combination of convection and radiation to transfer heat to foodsSome require a gentle heat so they are baked in a water bath, it regulates the heat so the product cooks very slowly.Baking in a water bath is also called baking au banmarie
Moist heat methods
Use liquid or steam in the cooking processAt lower temperatures, moisture is more effective at heat transfer than air.Moist methods are best used for tougher cuts of meats and fibrous vegetables
Cooking food in a liquid at relatively low temperatureThe liquid is often flavoredUsed for delicate products that might fall apart if cooked at higher temperaturesThe temperature range for poaching is 160 to 180The poaching liquid transfers heat to the food by convectionA properly poached product maintains its shape and delicate textureTwo distinct techniques:Shallow poaching: poaching in a small amount of liquid that is often used to make a sauce after the poachingDeep poaching: enough liquid is used to cover the product, not used to create a sauce used for items such as eggs, whole fish, large cuts of poultry
Cooks food in liquid at a temperature just below boiling, the proper temperature for simmering is 185 to 205Temperature range is important for lower temperatures are not hot enough to break down connective tissues.Temperatures above 205 toughen proteins and make the cooking liquid cloudyIt is used to make stocks and broths as well as cooking tough cuts of meat and poultry
Is cooking in a liquid at its highest possible temperature.At sea level water boils at 212 degrees FahrenheitBoiling liquids move rapidly creating a vigorous rolling motion and large bubblesTransferring heat through convection
Is a moist method that cooks food products by surrounding it with steam vaporSteam is hotter than boiling waterSteaming may be done in a steamer or steam ovenPressure steamers use a tightly sealed compartment with pressurized steam for greater heat transfer
Combination methods
Braising: combines the process of browning and simmeringFirst the food is browned on all sides, in a small amount of fat then liquid is added and then it is simmeredBraising has the ability to tenderize tough cuts of meat or poultry like simmering and it also has the rich flavor and color of sautéed items.The first process is done on the stovetop over high heat, then it can be covered and can be finished of on the stovetop or in the oven.
Stewing the vegetables or ingredients are cut into smaller pieces.Either the braising or simmering technique can be used to makea stewThe ingredients for stew cook in enough liquid for them to float freely during the cooking process





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_-Chapter 18