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Nanotechnology and Bio-energy

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Nanotechnology and Bio-energy
By: MirandaCozza
My Article
Bio-Batteries and Bio-Fuel Cells: Leveraging on Electronic Charge Transfer ProteinsBy: A. M.Kannan,V.Renugopalakrishnan,S.Filipek, P. Li, G. F.Audette, and L.Munukutla
Nanotechnology
Nanotechnology isa branchof physicalscience which deals with the study and analysis ofmatter on an atomic or molecular scale to yield newstructures, devices, materials, systems and catalystswith unique and extraordinaryproperties.This technologycan provide us quicker, faster and morereliable methods to optimize the energy generationfrom the biological sources.Productsbased onnanotechnologythat are available today have anextremelydiverse background, ranging fromindustrialmeasuring and sensing devices, therapeuticsystems and consumer friendly goods such as wrinklesresistant clothes, tubeless tires and so on.
Introduction: Bio-Fuel Cells
Energy- conversion device based on bio-electrocatalysisleveraging on enzymes or microorganisms.Either through Direct Electron transfer- where electron transfer is directly between enzymes and electrodesOr Mediated electron transfer- in which electron shuttle mediators shuttle the electron between enzymes andelectrodyesDET is more desirableWe are going to be using miniature cells to derive power from biological macromolecules
Bio-fuel Cell Continued and Bio-Battery
Galvani discovered that biological pathways have abioelectrochemicalfacetThis is because an electron signal can induce biological reaction; and the same goes in the reverse.First microbial biofuel demonstrated in 1912But first enzyme-based bio-fuel cell only reported in 1964 using glucose oxidase – anodic catalyst and glucose as bio fuelBio Battery – generates electricity from carbohydrates by using enzymes as the catalystsGlucose→Gluconolactone+2H+2e−O2 +4H+4e− → 2H2O
Previous Attempts of Bio-fuel Cells
Several potential applications of BFCs have beenreportedHowever, there areno Bio fueldesigntemplatesthat allow for the production of a working device with a size on the orderof 1 ccdueto the difficulty forenzymes toattain direct electrical contact with the electrodes ofthe celland catalyze reactionseffectivelyTwo large obstacles with bio-fuel cellIncreasing power densityAnd increasing enzyme stability
Technical Challenges of Bio-Fuel Cells
Nanostructuredbioelectrocatalysis.2.Immobilization ofbioelectrocatalysts.3.Protein denaturation induced by CNT
NanostructuredBioelectrocatalysis
Bio fuel cells need catalystExamplevirus-based lithium-ionbiobatteries.There is an increasing need for smaller and more flexible Li ion batteries methods to assemble battery materials in various applications.However, realizing smaller and flexible battery systems needmonodisperse, homogeneousnanomaterialsand hierarchical organization control.
ImmobilizedBioelectrocatalyston CNTs (Carbon Nanotubes)
In order to promote DET of the protein and to improvethe stability, it is necessary that the protein is immobilized in the form of clusters.Recent study that CEC-Goxdid not manifest in activity after 250 daysThis is due to the CNTSCarbon nanotubes have potential to allow new 3-dimensional CNT-Goxanode structuresFrom the researcher laboratories of this article they found that the CNT – lead to denaturation of proteins
Electron Transfer
Most of bio-molecularelectronic or proteinbased devices hinge on ECT (Electroncharge transfer)Protein bearing transition metals such as Cu2+ and Fe 2+ play leading roles in Electron transportFlavoproteins- used in electron charge transferOxidoreductases- mainGlucose Oxidase (GOx)
Glucose Oxidase (Gox)
Article focused onGoxas a test case for covalent attachment to substratesDiscovered- covalent attachment ofGoxto SWCNT(single – walled carbon nanotubes) enhances the efficient transfer of electrons
Conclusion!!!
By engineering a approach that significantly simplifies the process of bio fuel cells; done bythere is no need for thin film depositions or any other surface pretreatmentthere is no preference for the semiconductor or metal usedand is easily adaptable to nanostructured surfaces.
Critique/ Future work
This article was very interesting but they did not really show what kind of experimentation went on to discover their findings. They just explained more about things that were known or needed a solution too.The one thing that bothered me is that they talked about how crosslinking with CNTs could cause denaturation, but never explained how or proposed a solution. This could be future work.At the end it talks about the packaging of bio-fuel cells and how there are many challenges to incorporate nanotechnology into the fuel cell and mass produce it. This could also be future work.
References
Kannan, A. M., et al. "Bio-Batteries and Bio-Fuel Cells: Leveraging on Electronic Charge Transfer Proteins."Nanoscienceand Nanotechnology(2008): 1-13. Document.F.DavisandS.P.J.Higson,Biosens.Bioelectron. 22, 1224 (2007).M.C.Potter, Proceedings of the Royal Society B, Biological Sciences 84, 260 (1912).A.T.Yahiro,S.M.Lee, andD.O.Kimble,Bioelectrochemistry:Enzyme utilizing bio-fuel cell studies,BiochimicaetBiophysicaActa(BBA)—Specialized Section on Biophysical Subjects 88, 37A.Heller, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 6, 209 (2004) and references therein
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Nanotechnology and Bio-energy