1.aspeech sound made with the vocal tract open2.A letter, such as a, e,i, o, u, and sometimes y in the English alphabet, that represents a vowel.In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound.
In theEnglishalphabet, there are 5 vowels: A, E, I, O, U. But there aremanymorevowel soundsin theEnglishlanguage. The number of vowels in English is uncertain,becausethere are different varieties ofEnglish.Examples of vowels:Ii/ɪ/ /aɪ/ "twin" / "twine"Oo/ɒ/ /oʊ/ "not" / "note"Uu/ʌ/ /juː/ "cub" / "cube"
Vowels in ArabicThere are 6 vowels - 3 short and 3 long - and 2 diphthongs in Arabic.
The three long vowel sounds in Arabic are represented by the following three letters.1. 'Alifحرف الألف2.Waw-حرف الواو3.Ya' -حرف الياء
The three short vowels sounds in Arabic are represented using the following symbols either above or below the letters.1.Fathaالفتحة- indicated by a small diagonal stroke above the consonant. This is the neutralavowel sound, such as in the words, nun and woman.2.Kasraالكسرة- indicated by a small diagonal stroke below the consonant. Similar to the sound in the middle of the word did.
3.Dammaالضمّة- written like a miniatureواوabove the letter. It's pronounced like theuin bull.→Sukunسكون- indicated by a small circle above the letter. It is used to signify the absence of a vowel, for example,بنْتandكنْ.
A diphthong is a combination of two vowel sounds occurring next to each other within the same syllable. The two diphthongs in Arabic are the two sounds:1. ay as in the wordبيت2. aw as in the wordيومحروف اللين:هما الواو والياء الساكنان المفتوح ما قبلهما مثل:"خوف"و "بيت”
Nunationالتنوينis found at the end of nouns and adjectives when they are indefinite.It is indicated using a doubled vowel sign. With the soundsun(doubledamma), in(doublekasra),oran(doublefatha).When thefathais doubled, the letter 'alifis added except when the word end in a ta'marboota.
Stress - The Syllable
A syllable is a unit of sound containing either a vowel sound alonee.g.eye, you; or a vowel sound with one or more consonantse.g.not, stop.Examples of two-syllable words:seven, water.Stress:when a word has more than one syllable, one of them is spoken with special force, called stress. A spoken word is recognized not only by its pronunciation but also by its stress pattern. If the pronunciation of a word is correct, but the stress is wrong then the word may not be understoode.g.Record(n):BrE/ˈrekɔːd/;NAmE/ˈrekərd/Record(v):BrE/rɪˈkɔːd/;NAmE/rɪˈkɔːrd/
Stress - The Syllable
The Arabic language is a language of syllable length, not stress. While reading Arabic all syllables should be given their full length, but no effort should be made to emphasize any syllable at the expense of the other. The result will sound as if some syllables are stronger than others, but this is because of theirlength.In Arabic, there are long and short syllables. The long syllable is the one that contains along vowel preceded by a matching short vowel(المد). The short syllable, on the other hand, contains a short vowel or adiphthong.
Examples:كَتَبَhas three short syllablesكاتبhas a long syllable (كَا) and a short syllable (تب)مكتباتhas a long syllable (بات) and two short syllables (مَك) and (ت)أوراقhas a short syllable (أو) and a long syllable (راق)تكبيرhas a long syllable (بير)and a short syllable (تك)فضةhas two short syllables (ف) and (ضة)بيتhas one short syllableخوفhas one short syllable
As in the English language, some abbreviations are used in the Arabic language, such asالخ.
The Alphabet as Numbers
The letters of the Arabic alphabet are sometimes used for numbering. The order followed is found in the following line:ابجدهوز حطي كلمن سعفص قُرِشَت ثَخِذ ضَظِغ
Indicate how many long syllables and short syllables are in each of the followingwords:أشجارقلملومقمّة