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Sentences, Phrases, Clauses - Mr. Jason Spitzer, English ...

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Sentences, Phrases, and Clauses
Grammar Part II
Part 1: Sentences
ASentenceis a group of words that make a complete idea.Sentences are made up of3 parts:1.The Subject– what is being spoken of.2.Verb– word (or phrase) that expresses action or state of being.3.The Predicate– what is being said of the subject.
Simple and Complete
“The condors of California soar gracefully in the sky.”Simple Subject– the key noun or pronoun in a sentence. Ex. CondorsSimple Predicate– the verb or verb phrase that tells something about the subject. Ex. SoarComplete Subject– the simple subject plus the words that modify it. Ex. The condors of CaliforniaComplete Predicate– the simple predicate and all the words that modify it. Ex. Soar gracefully in the sky
Compound Subjects and Predicates
Compound Subject– two or more simple subjects joined by a conjunction and that share the same verb. Ex. “EaglesandOwlshuntfor food.”Compound Predicate (or Verb)– two or more verbs or verb phrases joined by a conjunction and that share the same subject. Ex. “Eaglessoarandplunge.”Some sentences have both: “EaglesandOwlssoarandplungein the sky.”
Sentence Order
The subject comes before the verb in most sentences in English. However, …Commands:Youis often understood rather than expressed. Ex. [You] Jump! [You] Tear it down!Questions:frequently begin with a verb or helping verb. Ex. Is he right? Will you visit your cousin?There or here:When there or here begins a sentence, followed by the verb “to be”, the subject will follow the predicate.Ex. “There are three owls in the nest.”Ex. “Here is my loudmouth sister.”
Inverted Order
Inverted Order– A sentence in which the predicate comes before the subject. It adds emphasis. (Predicate Verb  Subject)Example: “Two eaglessoaredover the mountain.”Example: “Over the mountainsoaredtwo eagles.”
“Birds fly” = complete thought“The mechanic is” = incomplete thoughtComplement – a word or group of words that completes the meaning of a verb.Four types:Direct ObjectsIndirect ObjectsObject ComplementsSubject Complements
Direct Object
Direct Object – a noun or pronoun that receives the action of atransitiveverb.Whom? What? of a verb:Ex: “The messagereachedthe lawyer.”Direct Objects can be compound:My motherinvitedUncle BillandAunt Clara.A Direct Object isneveran adverb or the noun or pronoun at the end of a prepositional phrase.
Indirect Object
Indirect Object – a noun or pronoun that comes after an action verb and before a Direct Object.Names the person or thing to which something is done.To or for Whom? To or for What?A sentence cannot have an Indirect Object unless it contains a Direct Object.Subject + Verb +Indirect Object+ Direct Object“Dave gave each car a new color.”
Object and Subject Complements
Object Complement– Completes the meaning of a Direct Object by identifying or describing it.Ex. “Engineers findplansessential.”Subject Complement– follows a subject and a linking verb and identifies or describes the subject (two types).1. Predicate Noun/ Pronoun (Nominative)– a noun or pronoun following a linking verb that identifies the subject further.Ex. “Engineersarescientists.”2. Predicate Adjective– an adjective that follows a linking verb that identifies the subject further.Ex. “Engineersareinventive.”
APhraseis a group of words that functions as a single part of speech; phrasesdo not contain a Subject or a Verb.1. Prepositional2. Appositive3. Participial4. Gerund5. Infinitive
Prepositional Phrase
APrepositional Phrasebegins with a preposition and ends with a noun or pronoun called theObject of the Preposition.Ex. “underthe window”Ex. “atthe store”Ex. “neartheflowersand thetrees”Can serve asAdjectivesorAdverbs.
Appositives and Appositive Phrases
AnAppositiveis a noun or pronoun placed after another noun or pronoun to identify, rename, or explain the preceding word.Ex. “The poetRobert Frostis much admired.”Appositive PhraseEx. “Robert Frost,a famous writer, is much admired for his poetry.”
Verbalsare verb forms used as another part of speech.There are three kinds:Participles (used as adjectives)Gerunds (used as nouns)Infinitives (used as nouns, adjectives, or adverbs)
Many adjectives are actuallyparticiples: a form of verb that acts as an adjective.Two kinds:1.Present Participles(end in –ing): going, playing, growing, telling, reading2.Past Participles(usuallyend in –ed, -t, -en): marked, jumped, moved, hurt, chosenParticiple Phrase:
Gerunds end in –ing.Gerunds are used as nouns.Gerunds can be used assubjects,direct objects,predicate nouns, andobjects of prepositions.A Gerund Phrase is a gerund with modifiers or a complement, allacting together as a noun.
An Infinitive is the form of a verb that comes after the wordtoand acts as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb.An infinitive phrase is an infinitive with modifiers or a complement.Ex. To be, to live. To work, To cry, To laugh, etc.`
A Clause is a group of words with its ownsubjectandverb.There are two types:1. AnIndependent Clause (AKA. MAIN CLAUSE)has its own subject and verb andis acompletethought.2. ASubordinate Clausehas a subject and a verb but is anincomplete thought.
Subordinate Clauses
Subordinate clauses begin withsubordinating conjunctionsorrelative pronouns.Subordinating conjunctions: if, since, when, although, because, and while.Relative pronouns: who, which, or that.A subordinating clause must be combined with anindependent clause to form a sentence.
Adjective Clauses
An adjective clause is a subordinate clause that modifies a noun or pronoun.Usually begins with:that, which, who, whom, or whose; sometimeswhenorwhere.Ex. They visited thememorialthat remembers Holocaust victims.Ex. Themuseumwhose artifacts include theDeadSea Scrollsis located in West Jerusalem.Two sentences can be combined into one sentence by changing one into an adj. clause.
Adverb Clauses
An adverbclause is a subordinate clause that modifies a verb, an adjective, or adverb.Adverb clauses begin with subordinating conjunctions.Ex. Jerusalem isinterestingbecause it is home to several diverse religions.In certain adverb clauses, words are left out.Elliptical AdverbEx. My brother can eat as muchas I{can eat}.
Noun Clause
A noun clause is a subordinate clause used as a noun.It can function in all the ways that a regular noun can: subject, direct object, indirect object, object of a preposition, or a predicate noun.Ex.Whoever lives on a farmoften eats home-grown food.Ex. A drought affectswhatever grows outdoors.
Sentence Structure
There are four basicsentence structures:1. Simple – 1 independent clause2. Compound – 2 or more independent clauses3. Complex – 1 independent clause, 1 or more subordinate clauses.4. Compound-Complex – 2 or more independent clauses, 1or more subordinateclauses.The length of the sentence does not necessarily alter its structure identity.
Simple Sentence
A simple sentence consists of a single independent clause.It contains a subject and a verb.It can be short or long.It does not contain any subordinate clauses.Ex.The sirensounded.Ex.Art and Archeologyreflect and explain Jerusalem’s history.
The Compound Sentence
A compound sentence consists of two or more independent clauses.The independent clauses are joined by a comma, a semicolon, or a coordinating conjunction (and, but, for, nor, or, so, yet).Ex.The population of Israelis approximately 4,700,000,butonly 8 percent of the peoplelive in rural areas.
Complex Sentences
A complex sentence consists of one independent clause and one or more subordinate clauses.The main clause and each subordinate clause have their own subjects and verbs; those in the main clause are calledthe subject of the sentenceandthe main verb.Ex.When the fog lifted,wecontinued our trip.
A compound-complex sentence consists of two or more independent clauses and one or more subordinate clauses.Ex.As he was leaving for school,Larryremembered to take his lunch, butheforgot the reportthat he had finished the night before.





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Sentences, Phrases, Clauses - Mr. Jason Spitzer, English ...