Accommodations and Modifications
Accommodations—Accommodations indicate changes tohowthe content is:1) taught,2) made accessible; and/or3) assessed.Accommodations do not change what the student is expected to master.The objectives of the course remain intact.Modifications--Indicates thewhat(content)being taught is modified.The student is expected to learn something different than the general education standard (e.g., GLE).
Ex. - The use of Braille, books on tape, screen readers, interpreter, word processor, etc. for visually impaired studentsEx. – For struggling readers - Color-key vowels and provide a vowel chart to reference to the correct sound for the letterEx. - Provide a space for the student to work that decreases distractionsEx. Oral testing, untimed testing, extended time to complete assignments, shortened tests, draw a diagram, develop a model, perform the answer, etc.Explain how you will address the varied needs of the students in your classroom. How will you meet the needs of students that require remediation or enrichment.Ex. – How will you address the needs of struggling readers?Ex. - How will you address the needs of ESL students?Ex. – Will you integrate “study skills” into your teaching practices?Ex. – Will you use Learning Centers, Tiered Instruction, Varied Pacing, Problem-Based Learning, Compacting, Chunking, varied forms of collaborative activities, peer-teaching, etc.?
Hearing ImpairedVisual accommodations include sign language interpreters, lip reading, and captioning.Aural accommodations include amplification devices such as FM systems.OtherWhen speaking, make sure the student can see your face and avoid unnecessary pacing and moving.When speaking, avoid obscuring your lips or face with hands, books, or other materials.Repeat discussion questions and statements made by other students.Write discussion questions/answers on a whiteboard or overhead projector.Speak clearly and at a normal rate.Use visual aids with few words and large images and fonts.Provide written lecture outlines, class assignments, lab instructions, and demonstration summaries and distribute them before class when possible.Fromhttp://www.washington.edu/doit/Stem/hearing.html
Blindnessrefers to the disability of students who cannot read printed text, even when enlarged. Typical accommodations include:Audiotaped, Brailled or electronic-formatted lecture notes, handouts, and texts.Verbal descriptions of visual aids.Raised-line drawings and tactile models of graphic materials.Braille lab signs and equipment labels.Auditory lab warning signals.Adaptive lab equipment (e.g., talking thermometers and calculators, light probes, and tactile timers).Computer with optical character reader, speech output, Braille screen display and/or Braille embosser.Low Visionrefers to students who have some usable vision, but cannot read standard-size text, have field deficits (for example, cannot see peripherally or centrally but can see well in other ranges), or other visual impairments. Typical accommodations include:Seating near front of class.Large print handouts, lab signs, and equipment labels.TV monitor connected to microscope to enlarge images.Class assignments made available in electronic format.Computer equipped to enlarge screen characters and images.Fromhttp://www.washington.edu/doit/Stem/disability_type.html
Learning Disabilities are documented disabilities that may affect reading, processing information, remembering, calculating, and spatial abilities.Examples of accommodations for students who have specific learning disabilities include:Notetakers and/or audiotaped class sessions.Captioned videos and films.Extra exam time, alternative testing arrangements.Visual, aural, and tactile instructional demonstrations.Reinforcing directions verbally.Breaking large amounts of information or instructions into smaller segments.Detailed printed or audiotaped project descriptions or instructions.Books on tape.Computers equipped with speech output, which highlights and reads (via screen reading software and a speech synthesizer) text on the computer screen.Word processing software that includes electronic spelling and grammar checkers, software with highlighting capabilities, and word prediction features.Software to enlarge screen images.
Encourage students to explore concepts in depth and encourage independent studies or investigations.Use thematic instruction to connect learning across the curriculum.Encourage creative expression and thinking by allowing students to choose how to approach a problem or assignment.Expand students’ time for free reading.Invite students to explore different points of view on a topic of study and compare the two.Provide learning centers where students are in charge of their learning.Brainstorm with gifted children on what types of projects they would like to explore to extend what they’re learning in the classroom.Determine where students’ interests lie and capitalize on their inquisitiveness.Refrain from having them complete more work in the same manner.Employ differentiated curriculum to keep interest high.Avoid drill and practice activities.Ask students’ higher level questions that require students to look into causes, experiences, and facts to draw a conclusion or make connections to other areas of learning.If possible, compact curriculum to allow gifted students to move more quickly through the material.Encourage students to make transformations- use a common task or item in a different way.Fromhttp://www.bsu.edu/web/lshasky/Forms/Interventions/Gifted.pdf
Modify the amount of work requiredAlter format of materials on page (font, spacing)Allow for alternate modes of respondingUse alternate grading systemDifferent test itemsNoted different objective for specific students