Compiled by –Dr.SarojSharmaNagpal, Associate ProfessorDept. of Psychology, P.G Govt. College, Sector-11,Chd.
PAPER - B
GENERAL PSYCHOLOGYUNIT –IIINTELLIGENCE
WECHSLER“Intelligence is the aggregate or global capacity of an individual to act purposefully, to think rationally ,and to deal effectively with his environment”NEISSER et al.,(1996)“The term intelligence refers to individuals’ abilities to understand complex ideas, to adapt effectively to the environment, to learn from experience ,to engage in various forms of reasoning , to overcome obstacles by careful thought.”ROBERT STERNBERG(1997)”Intelligence comprises the mental abilities necessary for adaptation to , as well as shaping and selection of, any environment context.”
THEORIES OF INTELLIGENCE
SPEARMAN’S - TWO FACTOR THEORYCharles Spearman(1927) proposed a“two factor theory”of intelligence. According to him ,intelligence consists ofGeneral(‘g’)andSpecific (‘s’)factors. This theory maintained that all intellectual activities share a single common factor, called ‘g’. Characterized as mental energy ‘g’ is considered responsible for relationships between different human activities. Positive correlations between any two factors were attributed to ‘g’ factor.
THURSTONE’S-PRIMARY MENTAL ABILITIES
LouisThurstone(1938)advanced the“Theory of Primary Mental Abilities”which states that intelligence consists of seven major factors, each of which is relatively independent of the others. These factors are :Verbal Comprehension , Verbal Fluency, Inductive Reasoning ,Spatial Visualization ,Number , Memory ,andPerceptual Speed.
GUILFORD’S S -O- I Model
On the basis of more than two decades of factor analytic research ,J.P.Guilfordproposed o box-like model, which is known asStructure - of - intellect Model. This theoryorganisesintellectual traits along three dimensions :Operations–what the respondent does ,Contents-the nature of the materials or information on which operations are performed, andProducts-the form in which information is processed by the respondents .Guilford’s classification includes6*5*5 categories, resulting into150 cellsin the model .In each cellatleastone factor or ability is expected ; some cells may contain more than one factor.
RaymondCattell(1971)proposed that there are two ‘g’ factors,gf(forfluid intelligence) and‘gc’ (forcrystallisedintelligence).Fluid intelligence includes the ability to think creatively , to reason abstractly, to make inferences from data, and to understand relationships. It is strongly influenced by heredity.Crystallisedintelligence includes what a person learns and retains from experience; so it is strongly influenced byenvironment.Testsof vocabulary and general information can be used to measurecrystallisedintelligence.It has been found that fluid intelligence tends to decline at an early age thancrystallisedintelligence though both show rapid decline starting in the late seventies.
MEASUREMENT OF INTELLIGENCE
Individual and Group TestsVerbal and Non-Verbal Tests
Individual and Group Tests
These Tests may be classified into different types depending upon their mode of administration and contentIndividual Testsare administered to one person at a time.Eg. Stanford-Binetand Wechsler scaleGroup Testsare administered on a large number of individuals at one time.
Verbal and Non-Verbal Tests
AVerbal Testdemands understanding of written words, therefore such tests can be administered to literatesNon-Verbal Testsuse pictures or illustrations as items e.g. Raven’s Progressive Matrices,Koh’sBlock Design Test.
Concept of I.Q
The term Intelligence Quotient (IQ) was devised in1912 byWilliam Stern. IQrefers to a child’s mentalage divided by chronological age and multiplied by100 :IQ =MA/CA*100
Uses of Intelligence Tests
For the purpose of selectionFor the purpose of ClassificationFor the purpose of promotionFor knowing one’s potentialityFor diagnostic purposeHelps in Research Work