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Post WW II US Foreign Policy - faculty.washington.edu

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Post WW II US Foreign Policy
From Truman to Nixon
Truman Administration Foreign Policy 1946-1953
Three Main Areas of Policy1. Economic -- Economic growth - free trade access to global markets and materials (Capitalism)2. Political -- Order, Stability, Freedom to determine political regimes, collective security,anti-communism, promoting Democracy3. Security -- Order, Stability "Containment"Truman administration policies were “constructed” to “solve” a set of concrete problems
1. Greece/Turkey and the Truman Doctrinehttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wmQD_W8Pcxghttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wmQD_W8Pcxg-- to full 18 minute speechAdministration chooses to make a big deal out of the Civil War in GreeceContainment and the role of World Policeman is bornTruman "I believe that it must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressure" 3/12/47Emergency military and Economic Assistance – money, arms, military trainers and economic advisersrequested $400 millions in aid to Greece and Turkey
2. Marshall PlanA pragmatic approach to addressing the problems of Western Europesupply capital, tools, food to restore Europeeconomic non-militaristic, non-ideological - humanitarian, common senseAugust 1947 - European Recovery Plan -- $28 billion -- December 1947 to Congress 17 billion --something for everyone --HumanitarianEconomic - Foreign markets, avoid depression, very good for U.S. businessesPol/mil - stemspoland economic chaos and instability in W. EuropeMarshall Plan and incredible success -- poured 13 billion into Europe - about 90 billion in current dollars -- template for future - creating economic/polstability and growth - applied with less success other places
3. NATOlast phase - the security partWhy did policymakers see military commitments to Europe as necessaryanswers in part found in the famous scholarly article by "X" (George Kennan) -- led to belief in the necessity of military commitments"the adroit and vigilant application of counterforce at a series of constantly shifting geographical and political points corresponding to the shifts and maneuvers of Soviet Policy"essential misinterpretation -- frompol/economic - militarykey to NATO - formalization of western alliance - entangling alliance - commitment to Europe - a formal presence and role in Europe - institutional commitmentHigh level U.S. foreign policy maker - (Lovett) -- departure from the past - "The U.S. had sought peace through weakness now it seeks peace through strength."
High Times for the TrumanAdminstration.A string of major foreign policy successesA major come from behind victory 1948 Presidential ElectionSuccess in May of 1949 in overcoming the Soviet effort to isolate and break Berlin - blockade given upCommunist revolution in Greece had failed - M. Plan working, Berlin was relieved, West allied against the Soviet threat -- "America, Winston Churchill proclaimed "has saved the world"BUTThree big problems on the horizon1 Republicans bitter at election loss -- pursue a destructive but effective strategy against Truman and the democrats2 "Loss" of China3 Soviet detonation of an atomic bomb
The Plan to Run the World and Win the Cold War -- NSC-68
NSC – 68 (Beginning of 1950)Why?Policy of Global Leadership in place but little capability to do the JobRealization of ProblemsEurope - Conventional Soviet ThreatS. Korea - Lacking capability to protect clients statesLoss of Nuclear MonopolyGrowing political and military problems in the developing world --- Vietnam
Structure of NSC- 68
The enemy - The Soviet Threat and RhetoricBasic StrategyU.S. Intentions - ContainmentContainment via Aggregate superior military strengthThe Present RisksPossible Courses of Action1. continue current policies2. isolation3. war4. a more rapid buildup of thepol, eco, and mil strength of the free world than provided under 1 above
Why no general War -- no first use of nuclear weaponsKey Policy Features of NSC- 68How to Win the Cold War1. Negotiate with Soviets from position of strength2. No Direct War3. Build Economically and outlast the Soviet Union4. Contain by combination of aggregate superior military strength and the construction of a strong periphery (foreign military and economic aid - advisers - military presence oversees)5. develop intelligence and covert operations
NSC structure continued
capabilities (develop the CIA)6. Develop strong unified democratic West7. Build up military strength8. develop domestic internal security and civil defense programs9. reduce the Federal deficit and defer domestic programs10. Increase taxesRaising overall security spending by three fold from approx 14 Billion to 35 billionHow to sell this politically? -- Cut desirable domestic programs, raise taxes to increase security --Policy makers have no answer
Truman and The Korean War 1950-1953
1. How to Sell NSC-682. N. Korea Invades June 26, 1950Problem -- Solution and the Co-evolution ofPolicyA. Defining the Problem --- "Soviet inspired andsupported"B. World War III?C. Implementing Containment - Helping a Client State facing external aggressionD. Quickly up the military escalatory ladder till U.S. combat troops deployed with combat mission for an indefinite period of time3. Policy Chaos - Summer till Fall - Containment orrollback (liberation) --- Rollback it is and across the 38th parallel4. Winter 1950-1951 - Limited War or all out War - the Struggle between Truman and MacArthur5. Why no "peace" until 1953
The Korean War Legacy
Permanent Cold War - Hostility toward the Soviet Union and Communist Chinapermanent tension and riskClashes on the peripheryPolitical Destruction of the Truman Presidency and the "lesson of Korea"U.S. rearmament 1949 11.1 Billion1952 57.7 Billion1953 35.0 BillionU.S. Troops deployed to EuropeContainment practiced in AsiaExpanded military establishment and permanent arms industry - the mil/indcomplexProblems - unpopular limited wars, and the psychology of containment

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Post WW II US Foreign Policy - faculty.washington.edu