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AHSGE Language - PC__MAC

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AHSGE Language
Review
Run-ons and Sentence Fragments
Sentence FragmentsA sentence fragment is a collection of words that does not express a complete thought.Example:Waiting for her sister to get the pizza.Example:The best fried chicken in town.
Run-Onsand Sentence Fragments
Run-OnsA run-on sentence occurs when a commas is used in place of a period, semicolon, or comma + coordinating conjunction (FANBOYS) to join two complete sentences. Sometimes, all punctuation is omitted.For, And, Nor, But, Or, Yet, SoExample:Lomax took the children to the parkLenethaentertained a friend at home.Comma SpliceA comma splice is a type of run-on that involves two complete sentences being joined by only a comma.Example:I wasn’t doing my homework, I hadn’t been passing my tests in school.
Run-Onsand Sentence Fragments
How to correct a run-onAdd a period to separate the two complete sentences, and add a capital letter to the second sentence.Add a semicolon to separate the two complete sentences.Add a comma + a coordinating conjunction to separate the two complete sentences.
Run-ons and Sentence Fragments
Label each sentence as a run-on or a fragment. Correct the sentence.Sheila played the trumpet in marching band they went to the national competition in October.Keri, the new girl in my English class from England.Max was leaning back in his chair, the chair slipped out from underneath him.Just in time for that midnight snack.Running all the way upstairs.We’re going through the house, you should stay outside.Tracy took the shortcut she didn’t want to walk far in the heat.
Run-ons and Sentence Fragments
Use a semicolon to join these two sentences in two different ways:The heat was unbearable.I went swimming.
Run-Onsand Sentence Fragments
Use a semicolon to join these two sentences in two different ways:The heat was unbearable; I went swimming.The heat was unbearable; therefore, I went swimming.
Run-ons and Sentence Fragments
Correct this sentence in three different ways:The speakers in that car were very loud, I wanted to get some for my car.Which underlined section of the sentence requires a change?My momwantedmeto helpher howeverI had to hurry and getto work.
Capitalization Rules
Capitalize the first word in a sentence.Capitalize the first word of a direct quotation that is a complete sentence, even if it is within another sentence.Example:Mr. White said, “Be here next Saturday at 9:00 am.”Capitalize names of specific persons, places, things or ideas. Capitalize adjectives formed from proper nouns.
Capitalization Rules
Capitalize compass directions only when they designate a specific region.Capitalize family relationships only when they designate a specific person.Example:DidGrandmatalk to myuncle?Capitalize every word in the titles of works of literature and film except articles (a, an, the), prepositions, conjunctions, and thetoin infinitives.
Punctuation Rules: Commas
Commas separate sentences only when they are joined by a conjunction.Commas are used to setnonrestrictive elementsoff from the rest of the sentence.Nonrestrictive elements include “extra information” that is not actuallyneededin the sentence.Commas usually follow an introductory word, phrase, clause, or expression.Commas are used to separate items in a series of three or more words, clauses, or phrases.
Punctuation Rules: Commas
Commas are used to set off direct address, tag questions, interjections, and opposing elements.Commas are used before and after quotations.“Go at once,” Gene commanded, “and see what is causing that commotion.”Commas are not used after a quotation when the quotation is an interjection or a question.“Why has the price of gas tripled?” asked the spokeswoman.
Punctuation and Capitalization
Correct the following sentences:She shouted, “Smokey come here!”The dog, a black terrier, came dashing toward her.“Good boy,” she said, “come inside now, Smokey.”My mother is going to the store after work today.I told Dad that I made all A’s on my report card.
Punctuation
Which underlined section of these sentences requires a change?The flowers of springare my favorites.Crocuses, daffodils,and tulipsherald springandaffect my moodevery year.
Punctuation
Because the hard drive crashed, my paper was not completed on time.My paper was not completed on time because the hard drive crashed.My hard drive crashed; therefore, my paper was not completed on time.
Punctuation: Colons
When are colons used?Generally, the colon is used to call the reader’s attention to what comes next.Some examples of when to use a colon include:Before a list of items, especially after words like“as follows”and“the following”Before a long, formal statement or quotationAfter the salutation of a business letter
Punctuation: Colons
Which sentences use the colon correctly?Tennis, reading, and swimming: are three of my favorite hobbies.Next summer we will travel through the following states: South Carolina, North Carolina, and Virginia.At an airport I like to listen to the many noises: engines roaring, people laughing, luggage rolling, and feet running.
Misplaced Modifiers
Misplaced ModifiersA modifier is a phrase or clause that helps clarify the meaning of another word.A misplaced modifier modifies the wrong noun in the sentence.
Misplaced Modifiers
Correct each sentence.Under the bedTiffany was happy to find her notebook.Kicking and screaming in the high chair, the adult tried to calm the child.Last week Jason found a dogin his best jacket.Although the snow is deep, the children with the new sled slide rapidly down hill.
Plural Nouns
What is the rule for making words ending in “o” plural?The plural of nouns ending in “o” preceded by a vowel is formed by adding “s”; the plural of nouns ending in “o” preceded by a consonant is formed by adding “es.” The exception is nouns ending in “o” preceded by a consonant and referring to music form the plural by adding “s.”Make these words plural.PotatoesHeroesVolcanoesRadiosPianosAltosSolosRodeos
Plural Nouns
What is the spelling rule to make compound nouns plural?The plural of compound nouns consisting of a noun plus a modifier is formed my making thenounplural.What are the plural forms of the following nouns?Daughters-in-lawAttorneys-at-lawEditors-in-chief
Pronouns
PronounsA pronoun takes the place of a nounSubject PronounsAre used as the subject of the sentence, or before the verbEx:he, she, it, they, we, I, youObject PronounsAre used after the verb in the sentenceEx:him, her, them, me, us, you
Pronouns
Which sentences use the correct pronoun? Fix the incorrect sentences.We girls built a very sturdy fort out of pillows.Jack and I knew that our football team would win the tournament.He and I went to Cathedral Caverns State Park to hike.Tell Samantha and me what you told your parents.
Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement
PronounTakes the place of a nounAntecedentThe noun that the pronoun refers to.Ex:Susangavehersweater to Jill.The pronoun and antecedent must agree in bothgenderandnumber!!!
Pronoun-Antecedent Agreement
Correct each sentence:The first timea userplaces an order,he or shemust provide a credit card number.Someoneparkedhis or hercar in my parking place.An honor roll studentshould be happy withhis or herprogress.
Possessive vs. Plural vs. Contractions
Choose the form of the word that correctly completes the sentence.(Its, It’s) too bad you blurted out the wrong answer before checking with your team.The (winds, wind’s) from the hurricane caused severe damage to the Mobile area.Many (workers’, worker’s) payroll records were destroyed in the fire that occurred in the main office of the factory.
Verb Tense
Correct the underlined verb in each sentence.Annabelthrewtheball quickly to first base.I wonder if my fathersawmy mother right after the movie ended.Last Tuesday, my three best friends and Iswamin the pond before school started.
Verb Tense
Correct the tense shifts in the following sentences:When my friend Sally cries, shewonthe argument.I am in my room, and Iplanedto read for an hour.Leedashesinto the house,slammedthe door behind him, andyellsfor me.
Active and Passive Voice
When is a verb in the active voice?A verb is in the active voice when it expresses an action performedbyits subject.**action verb**When is it in the passive voice?A verb is in the passive voice when the action it expresses is performeduponits subject.**helping verb + main verb****by**Give an example of the same sentence in the active voice and in the passive voice.Timmythrowsthe ball.The ballwas thrownby Timmy.
Active and Passive Voice
Identify each verb as active or passive.TommyhitKent in the face.Ashley’s hairwas pulledby CJ.Mrs. FountainkickedRemiin order to wake him up.Markia’swater bottlewas thrownacross the room by Seth.
Parallel Structure
Parallel StructureParallelism in writing is a way of joining similar ideas and giving them emphasis throughrepetition.When a writer describes two or more items in a series, he or she must keep the structure similar, or the sentence will be unclear in its meaning.
Parallel Structure
Examples:Prepositional Phrases:The housekeeper lookedinside the drawers,on top of the bookcase, andunder the recliner for the missing wallet.The housekeeper looked inside the drawers, the bookcase, and under the recliner for the missing wallet.NounsThese gifted boys could name the types oftrees,flowers, andbirdsin the forest.These gifted boys could name the types of trees, flowers, and some special kinds of birds in the forest.VerbsCarlos Mendozatookpictures of smiling people,developedthe pictures in his darkroom, andsentthem to the company for the contest.Carlos Mendoza took pictures of smiling people, develops the pictures in his darkroom, and sent them to the company for the contest.PronounsTakehim,her, andthemto the football game.Take him, she, and them to the football game.
Parallel Structure
Examples: Correct each sentence.I am going shopping,to the skating rink,and bicycling this weekend.Shelby asked him to bring the truck andmovingthe refrigerator.Mom invited the guests, baked a cake, anddecoratesthe house to get ready for the birthday party.
Subject/Verb Agreement
Subject Verb AgreementThe subject of a sentence must agree with the corresponding verb of the sentence.The subject is the word performing the action.The object (or noun) of a prepositional phrasecannot be the subject of the sentence!!!!!!!Example:My olderbrothers playbaseball in the park.Example:The samefrogs croakin theChuckfeeBay every night.
Subject/Verb Agreement
Choose the correct verb in the parentheses:Many(arrives,arrive) early at school each day.Theconfusionamong his students (is, are) understandable.Neitherof the girls (wants, want) to visit the art museum today.It (don’t,doesn’t) matter to me if you eat all of the pizza.Thepackof wolves spreads out and (surround,surrounds) their prey.Ameteoritefrom Mars (land,lands) in Antarctica 17 million years ago.
Commonly Confused Words
Say the meaning of each word, and use it in a sentence:Accept / ExceptCapitol / CapitalAffect / EffectAll ready /AlreadyThrough/ThrewTo/Too/Two
Commonly Confused Words
Accept-verb; toreceiveExcept-butCapitol-a legislature’s buildingCapital-a legislature’s cityAffect-verb; to influenceEffect-noun; a resultAll ready-pronoun plus adjective; everyone is readyAlready-adverb; previously
Commonly Confused Words
Choose the word in parentheses to correctly complete the sentence:Montgomery is the (capital,capitol) of Alabama.Morrieis three minutes older (then,than) his twin brother Mike.Alisha had (to, two,too) much homework.Jackson quickly ran past the (principal,principle) of the school just as the bell rang.
Commonly Confused Words
What is the purpose of each apostrophe in three of the words below?You’re-You areIt’s-it isThey’re-they areHers-possessive pronounOurs-possessive pronounWhy dohersandoursnot have an apostrophe?Possessive pronouns do not have apostrophes unless they are contractionsWhatdoes each contraction mean?Useeach contraction in a sentence.
Specific Wording
Specific Wordsconvey messages accurately.Give a more specific word for each word below:CarFurnitureTeacher
Transitions
TransitionsA transition is a word or phrase used to link ideas.It helps the reader to make connections.Example:finally, however,consequently, first, secondly, lastly
Introduction and Conclusion
What are the elements of an effective introductory sentence?An effective introductory sentence should:Introduce the main ideaOmit a detailed explanation of anyidea; the statement should be very generalCapture the reader’s attentionWhat are the elements of an effective concluding sentence?An effective concluding sentence should:Provide a satisfying endingOmit newideasSum up the paragraph
Revision
RevisionRevision involves altering and improving the content of an essayRevision StrategiesOrganize during prewriting to avoid major revisionsChange or delete sentences that are off topic and improve word choice
Persuasive Techniques
Purpose ofPersuasionTo get the reader to see your point of viewTechniquesState the facts.State the benefits to the audience.State the author’s expertise.Connect emotionally with the reader.
Grammatical Errors
Which sentence is correct? What must be corrected in each of the other three sentences?We were going to the movies, butmomsaidthat we had to wait.Dad needed the car to run an errand, and hedon’tknow when he will be back.Deanna andmeplayedcards for a few minutes.We left for the movies as soon as Dad returned, and we were there in time for the previews.
Grammatical Errors
What is wrong with the following sentences?“Iwish the dogs would stop barking long enough for me to get a little bit ofsleep,” moanedmy tiredmother.“Vanessa,”her best friendpleaded, “areyou still angry at me for the trick I played onyou?”Iwish the cafeteria atKashweeHigh SchoolservedChinesefood once ina while.My Englishclass just finished reading the poem entitled“The Raven”byEdgar Allan Poeand the novelTo KillaMockingbirdbyHarper Lee.

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AHSGE Language - PC__MAC