Japan returns to Isolation
SSWH11 The students will investigate the political and social changes in Japan and in China from the seventeenth century CE to mid-nineteenth century CE.A. Describe the policies of the Tokugawa and Qing rules; include howOdaNobunaga laid the ground work for the subsequent Tokugawa rulers and howKangxicame to rule for such a long period in China.B. Analyze the impact of population growth and its impact on the social structure of Japan and China.
How did the social structure in Japan differ from the social structure in China?How didOdaNobunaga lay the ground work for TokugawaShogunatein Japan?
Feudalism in Japan
“Warring States”- time in Japanese’s historySamurai- seized control of old feudal estates. Offered peasants protection in return for loyalty.Daimyo: Warrior chieftains, became lords in a new kind of Japanese feudalism.Similar to European feudalism.
Brutal and ambitious daimyo who defeated his rivals and seized the imperial capital Kyoto in 1568.Motto= “Rule the empire by force”.First to use firearms effectively in JapanWas not able to unify Japan.Seppuku= the ritual suicide of a samurai
Nobunaga’s best general- continued leader’s mission.Set out to destroy the daimyo that remained hostile.Combined brute force with political alliances, he controlled most of the country.Eventually conquered both Korea and China.
Completed the unification of Japan.He became the sole ruler = Shogun.Moved the capital to Edo(small fishing village) became the city of Tokyo.Tamed the daimyo by setting up an “alternate attendance policy”. = restoring centralized government to Japan.Founded the TokugawaShogunate
Held power in Japan until 1867Shoguns followedIeyasuadvice: “ Take care of the people. Strive to be virtuous. Never neglect to protect the country.”Brought welcome into Japan
Life in Tokugawa Japan
Stability, prosperity, and isolation under Tokugawa shoguns.Farmers produced more food and population rose.Merchants and wealthy prospered.Majority of peasants were heavily taxedJapanese culture spread
Society in Tokugawa Japan
Emperor had the top rank(figurehead).Shogun- military commander- was the actual ruler.Daimyo- powerful samuraiSamurai warriors came next.Peasants and artisans.Merchants were at the bottom but moved their way up as the economy suspended.
Society in Tokugawa Japan
Peasant farmers bore main tax burden.Shift from rural to urban societies.Women found jobs in entertainment, textile, manufacturing, and publishing.Most women worked in the fields, managed the household, cared for children, and obeyed their husband without question.
Culture in TokugawaShogunate
Traditional culture strivedPlays/dramas based on ancient warriors and their courage in battle.Hung paintings that showed scenes from classical literature.Haiku- 5-7-5 Syllable, 3 line verse poetry, this presented images rather than ideas.Kabuki= theater
Portuguese hoped to get involved with trade in China and Southeast Asia.Brought: clocks, eyeglasses, tobacco, firearms, and other items from Europe.Daimyo welcomed them and their cannons and musketsPurchased weapons from the Portuguese and soon began their own production.
Christian missionaries began arriving in Japan, came along with trade.Missionaries were changing traditional Japanese beliefs and sometimes involved themselves in local politics.Christian Rebels started un up rise against theshogunate- decided Christianity was the root of the uprising.
Japan in Isolation
Persecution of Christians was part of an attempt to control foreign ideas. –“closed country policy”.Nagasaki- remained open port to Dutch and Chinese merchants.Japanese were forbidden to leave for fear of bringing back foreign ideas.