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Disfunkcije http___www.youtube.com_watch_v=3qvGZHNL5fo

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Disfunkcije i patologijehttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3qvGZHNL5fo
Josip Kregarčetvrtak, 28. studeni 2013
ParkinsonLaw
The amount of time which one has to perform a task is the amount of time it will take to complete the task.
Parkinsonlaw:Increase
Space will not allow of detailed analysis but the reader will be interested to know that research began in the British Navy Estimates. These were chosen because the Admiralty's responsibilities are more easily measurable than those of, say, the Board of Trade. The question is merely one of numbers and tonnage. Here are some typical figures.The Strength of the Navy in 1914 could be shown as 146,000 officers and men, 3249 dockyard officials and clerks, and 57,000 dockyard workmen. By 1928 there were only 100,000 officers and men and only 62,439 workmen, but the dockyard officials and clerks by then numbered 4558. As for warships, the strength in 1928 was a mere fraction of what it had been in 1914-- fewer than 20 capital ships in commission as compared with 62. Over the same period the Admiralty officials had increased in number from 2000 to 3569, providing (as was remarked) "a magnificent navy on land." These figures are more clearly set forth in tabular form.
Comitology
When first examined under the microscope, the cabinet council usually appears-- tocomitologists, historians, and even to the people who appoint cabinets-- toconsist ideally of five.With that number the plant is viable, allowing for two members to be absent or sick at any one time. Five members are easy to collect and, when collected, can act with competence, secrecy, and speed. Of these original members four may well be versed, respectively, in finance, foreign policy, defense, and law. The fifth, who has failed to master any of these subjects, usually becomes the chairman or prime minister.
PRINCIPLES OF SELECTION
All these features were faithfully incorporated in 49 the Trevelyan-NorthcoteReport, and thereafter in the system it did so much to create. It was assumed that classical learning and literary ability would fit any candidate for any administrative post. It was assumed (no doubt rightly) that a scientific education would fit a candidate for nothing-- except, possibly, science. It was known, finally, that it is virtually impossible to find an order of merit among people who have been examined in different subjects. Since it is impracticable to decide whether one man is better in geology than another man in physics, it is at least convenient to be able to rule them both out as useless. When all candidates alike have to write Greek or Latin verse, it is relatively easy to decide which verse is the best. Men thus selected on their classical performance were then sent forth to govern India. Those with lower marks were retained to govern England.
COCKTAIL FORMULA
What we have next to study is the time at which people arrive. Now we can safely assume that the people who matter will arrive at the time they consider favorable. They will not be among those who have overestimated the length of their journey and so arrive ten minutes before the party is due to begin. They will not be among those whose watches have stopped and who rush in, panting, when the party is nearly over. No, the people we want to identify will choose their moment. What moment will it be? It will clearly be a time fixed by two major considerations. They will not want to make an entrance before there are sufficient people there to observe their arrival. But neither will they want to arrive after other important people have gone on (as they always do) to another party. Their arrival will therefore be at least half an hour after the party begins and at least an hour before it is due to end. That gives us a bracket, suggesting the formula that the optimum arrival time will be exactly three-quarters of an hour after the time given on 73 the invitation card: 7.15, for example, if the party is supposed to start at 6.30. The temptation at this point is to conclude that the discovery of the optimum arrival time is the solution to the whole problem. Some students might say, "Never mind what happens afterwards. Observe the door with a stop watch and you have the answer." The more experienced investigator will treat that suggestion with gentle derision. For who is to know that the person arriving at 7.15 precisely was aiming to do just that? Some may arrive at that time because they meant to be there at 6.30 but could not find the place. Others may arrive at that hour thinking that the time is later than it is. A few might turn up then without even being invited-- guests expected somewhere else and on another day. So, although safely concluding that the people who matter should arrive between 7.10 and 7.20,we would be entirely wrong to regard as important all who appear at about that time.
PENSION POINT, OR THE AGE OF RETIREMENT
It will be observed that air travel, considered as a retirement-accelerator, hasthe advantage of including a fair amount of form-filling. But form-filling proper is a separate ordeal, not necessarily connected with travel. The art of devising forms to be filled in depends on three elements: obscurity, lack of space, and the heaviest penalties for failure. In a form-compiling department, obscurity is ensured by various branches dealing respectively with ambiguity, irrelevance, and jargon. But some of the simpler devices have now become automatic.
PENSION POINT, OR THE AGE OF RETIREMENT
But a serious problem remains. What are we ourselves to do when nearing the retirement age we have fixed for others? It will be obvious at once that our own case is entirely different from any other case we have so far considered. We do not claim to be outstanding in any way, but it just so happens that there is no possible successor in sight. It is with genuine reluctance that we agree to postpone our retirement for a few years, purely in the public interest. And when a senior member of staff approaches us with details of a conference at Teheran or Hobart, we promptly wave it aside, announcing that all conferences are a waste of time. "Besides," we continue blandly, "my arrangements are already made. I shall be salmon fishing for the next two months and will return to this office at the end of October, by which date I shall expect all the forms to have been filled in. Goodbye until then."We knew how to make our predecessors retire. When it comes to forcing our own retirement, our successors must find some method of their own. 113
Peterprincipe
Observation that in anhierarchypeople tend to rise to "their level of incompetence." Thus, as people are promoted, they become progressively less-effective because goodperformanceinonejobdoes notguarantlysimilar performance in another.Namedafter the Canadian researcher Dr. Laurence J. Peter (1910-90) who popularized this observation in his 1969 book 'The Peter Principle.‘Read more:http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/Peter-principle.html#ixzz2lyGJXYXv
Formalne organizacije
formal,rationallyorganizedsocialstructureinvolvesclearlydefinedpatternsofactivityinwhich,ideally,everyseriesofactionsisfunctionallyrelatedtothepurposesoftheorganization.Insuchanorganizationthereisintegratedaseriesofoffices,ofhierarchizedstatuses,inwhichinhereanumberofobligationsandprivilegescloselydefinedbylimitedandspecificrules.Eachoftheseofficescontainsanareaofimputedcompetenceandresponsibility.Authority,thepowerofcontrolwhichderivesfromanacknowledgedstatus,inheresintheofficeandnotintheparticularpersonwhoperformstheofficialrole..
Formalna struktura je dizajnirana prema planu i idealu postizanja ciljaFormalna struktura je hijerarhijski povezana organizacijskimzulogamaFormalna struktura pretpostavlja pravila
Formalne organizacije
.Thesystemofprescribedrelationsbetweenthevariousofficesinvolvesaconsiderabledegreeofformalityandclearlydefinedsocialdistancebetweentheoccupantsofthesepositions.Formalityismanifestedbymeansofa more orlesscomplicatedsocialritualwhichsymbolizesandsupportsthepeckingorderofthevariousoffices.Suchformality,whichisintegratedwiththedistributionofauthoritywithinthesystem,servestominimizefrictionbylargelyrestricting(official)contacttomodeswhicharepreviouslydefinedbytherulesoftheorganization.Readycalculabilityofothers’behaviorandastablesetofmutualexpectationsisthusbuiltup.Moreover,formalityfacilitatestheinteractionoftheoccupantsofofficesdespitetheir(possiblyhostile)privateattitudestowardoneanother.Inthisway,thesubordinateisprotectedfromthearbitraryactionofhis superior,sincetheactionsofbothareconstrainedbyamutuallyrecognizedsetofrules.Specificproceduraldevicesfosterobjectivityandrestrainthe“quickpassageofimpulseintoaction.”(2)
Formalnosti odnosa i ritualiPredvidivost ponašanja i međusobnih očekivanjaRedukcija psiholoških i socijalnih troškovaRedukcija subjektivnosti i napetosti
Concept of Dysfunction


What is Dysfunction?Sociologically, it is defined as a consequence of a social practice or behavior pattern that undermines the stability of a social systemMerton strongly emphasized its existenceMust recognize the dysfunctional aspect of institutionsHelps explain the development and persistence of alternatives

UnanticipatedConsequences

Crucial innovation to the field of SociologyUnanticipated consequencesActions that have both intended and unintended consequences.Requires sociological analysis.Can be both negative and beneficial.
Example
AsprinUsed most commonly as pain reliever
Unanticipated consequence is that asprin is also an anti-coagulant which can help reduce the risk of a hear-attack.
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Zadatak je položaj
As Weberindicates,bureaucracyinvolvesaclear-cutdivisionofintegratedactivitieswhichareregardedasdutiesinherentintheoffice. Asystemofdifferentiatedcontrolsandsanctionsisstatedintheregulations.Theassignmentofrolesoccursonthebasisoftechnicalqualificationswhichareascertainedthroughformalized,impersonalprocedures(e.g.,examinations).Withinthestructureofhierarchicallyarrangedauthority,theactivitiesof“trainedandsalariedexperts” aregovernedbygeneral,abstract,andclearlydefinedruleswhichprecludethenecessityfortheissuanceofspecificinstructionsforeachspecificcase.Thegeneralityoftherulesrequirestheconstantuseofcategorization,wherebyindividualproblemsandcasesareclassifiedonthebasisofdesignatedcriteriaandaretreatedaccordingly.Thepuretypeofbureaucraticofficialisappointed,eitherbya superior orthroughtheexerciseofimpersonalcompetition; he isnotelected. Ameasureofflexibilityinthebureaucracyisattainedbyelectinghigherfunctionarieswhopresumablyexpressthewilloftheelectorate(e.g., abodyofcitizensor aboardofdirectors).Theelectionofhigherofficialsisdesignedtoaffectthepurposesoftheorganization, butthetechnicalproceduresforattainingtheseendsarecarriedoutbycontinuingbureaucraticpersonnel.Mostbureaucraticofficesinvolvetheexpectationoflife-longtenure,intheabsenceofdisturbingfactorswhichmaydecreasethesizeoftheorganization.Bureaucracymaximizesvocationalsecurity.(Thefunctionofsecurityoftenure,pensions,incrementalsalariesandregularizedproceduresforpromotionis toensurethedevotedperformanceofofficialduties,withoutregardforextraneouspressures.Thechiefmeritofbureaucracyisitstechnicalefficiency,witha premiumplacedonprecision,speed,expertcontrol,continuity,discretion,andoptimalreturnsoninput.Thestructureis onewhichapproachesthecompleteeliminationofpersonalizedrelationshipsandnonrationalconsiderations(hostility,anxiety,affectualinvolvements,etc.
Ljudi su instrumenti
Withincreasingbureaucratization, itbecomesplainto all whowouldseethatmanis to averyimportantdegreecontrolledbyhissocialrelationstotheinstrumentsofproduction.ThiscannolongerseemonlyatenetofMarxism, but astubbornfacttobeacknowledgedbyall,quiteapartfromtheirideologicalpersuasion.Bureaucratizationmakesreadilyvisiblewhatwaspreviouslydimandobscure. Moreandmorepeoplediscoverthatto work,theymustbeemployed. For to work, one musthavetoolsandequipment.Andthetoolsandequipmentareincreasinglyavailableonlyinbureaucracies,privateorpublic.Consequently, one mustbeemployedbythebureaucraciesinordertohaveaccess totoolsinordertoworkinorderto live. It isinthissensethatbureaucratizationentailsseparationofindividualsfromtheinstrumentsofproduction, asinmoderncapitalisticenterprise orinstatecommunisticenterprise (ofthemidcenturyvariety),justasinthepost-feudalarmy,bureaucratizationentailedcompleteseparationfromtheinstrumentsofdistinction.Typically,theworkernolongerownshistoolsnorthesoldier, hisweapons.Andinthisspecialsense, moreandmorepeoplebecomeworkers,eitherbluecollaror whitecollarorstiffshirt.Sodevelops, forexample,thenewtypeofscientificworker, asthescientistis “separated”fromhistechnicalequipment—afterall,thephysicistdoesnotordinarilyown hiscyclotron. To work at hisresearch, he mustbeemployedbyabureaucracywithlaboratoryresources.Bureaucracyisadministrationwhichalmostcompletelyavoidspublicdiscussionofitstechniques,althoughtheremayoccurpublicdiscussionofitspolicies.Thissecrecyisconfinedneithertopublicnor toprivatebureaucracies.It isheldtobenecessarytokeepvaluableinformationfromprivateeconomiccompetitorsorfromforeignandpotentiallyhostilepolitical groups.Andthoughit isnotoftensocalled,espionageamongcompetitorsisperhapsascommon,ifnotasintricatelyorganized,insystemsofprivateeconomicenterprise asinsystemsofnationalstates.Costfigures,listsofclients, newtechnicalprocesses,plansforproduction— allthesearetypicallyregardedasessentialsecretsofprivateeconomicbureaucracieswhichmightberevealedifthebasesofalldecisionsandpolicieshad tobepubliclydefended
Trainedincapacity
Trainedincapacityreferstothatstateofaffairsinwhichone’sabilitiesfunctionasinadequaciesorblindspots.Actionsbasedupontrainingandskillswhichhavebeensuccessfullyappliedinthepastmayresultininappropriateresponsesunderchangedconditions.Aninadequateflexibilityintheapplicationofskillswill,inachangingmilieu,resultinmore orlessseriousmaladjustments.Pasttrainingand,undernewconditionswhicharenotrecognizedassignificantlydifferent,theverysoundnessofthistrainingmayleadtotheadoptionofthewrongprocedures.“peoplemaybeunfittedbybeingfitinanunfitfitness”;theirtrainingmaybecomeanincapacity
Occupationalpsychosis
Conceptofoccupationalpsychosisis aresultoftheirdaytodayroutines,whenpeopledevelopspecialpreferences,antipathies,discriminationsandemphases.Thesepsychosesdevelopthroughdemandsputupontheindividualbytheparticularorganizationofhisoccupationalrole.
Discipline
Thebureaucraticstructureexertsaconstantpressureupontheofficialtobe“methodical,prudentdisciplined.”Ifthebureaucracyis tooperatesuccessfully, it mustattainahighdegreeofreliabilityofbehavior,anunusualdegreeofconformitywithprescribedpatternsofaction.Hence,thefundamentalimportanceofdisciplinewhichmaybeashighlydevelopedinareligiousoreconomicbureaucracyasinthearmy. Disciplinecanbeeffectiveonlyiftheidealpatternsarebuttressedbystrongsentimentswhichentaildevotionto one’sduties, akeensenseofthelimitationofone'sauthorityandcompetence,andmethodicalperformanceofroutineactivities.Theefficacyofsocialstructuredependsultimatelyuponinfusinggroupparticipantswithappropriateattitudesandsentiments. Asweshallsee,therearedefinitearrangementsinthebureaucracyforinculcatingandreinforcingthesesentiments.
Konformizam
Atthemoment, itsufficestoobservethatinordertoensurediscipline (thenecessaryreliabilityofresponse),thesesentimentsareoftenmoreintensethanistechnicallynecessary.Thereis amarginofsafety,sotospeak,inthepressureexertedbythesesentimentsuponthebureaucrattoconformtohispatternedobligations,inmuchthesamesensethataddedallowances(precautionaryoverestimations) aremadebytheengineerindesigningthesupportsfor a bridge. Butthisveryemphasisleadsto atransferenceofthesentimentsfromtheaimsoftheorganizationontotheparticulardetailsofbehaviorrequiredbytherules.Adherencetotherules,originallyconceivedas ameans,becomestransformedintoanend-in-itself;thereoccursthefamiliarprocessofdisplacementofgoalswhereby“aninstrumentalvaluebecomesa terminalvalue”.
Displacementoftheoriginalgoals
Discipline,readilyinterpretedasconformancewithregulations,whateverthesituation, isseennotas ameasuredesignedforspecificpurposesbutbecomesanimmediatevalueinthelife-organizationofthebureaucrat.Thisemphasis,resultingfromthedisplacementoftheoriginalgoals,developsintorigiditiesandaninabilitytoadjustreadily.Formalism,evenritualism,ensueswithanunchallengedinsistenceuponpunctiliousadherencetoformalizedprocedures.Thismaybeexaggeratedtothepointwhereprimaryconcernwithconformitytotherulesinterfereswiththeachievementofthepurposesoftheorganization,inwhichcasewehavethefamiliarphenomenonofthetechnicismor redtapeoftheofficial.Anextremeproductofthisprocessofdisplacementofgoalsisthebureaucraticvirtuoso, whoneverforgetsasinglerulebindinghisactionandhenceisunabletoassistmanyofhisclients.
Disfunkcije organizacije
Aneffectivebureaucracydemandsreliabilityofresponseandstrictdevotiontoregulations.Suchdevotiontotherulesleadstotheirtransformationintoabsolutes;theyare nolongerconceivedasrelativeto a setofpurposes.Thisinterfereswithreadyadaptationunderspecialconditionsnotclearlyenvisagedbythosewhodrewupthegeneralrules.Thus,theveryelementswhichconducetowardefficiencyingeneralproduceinefficiencyinspecificinstances.Fullrealizationoftheinadequacyisseldomattainedbymembersofthegroup whohavenotdivorcedthemselvesfromthemeaningswhichtheruleshaveforthem.Theserulesintimebecomesymbolicincast,ratherthanstrictlyutilitarian.
Napredovanje: pretjerivanje ne škodi
Thebureaucrat’sofficiallife isplannedforhimintermsofagradedcareerthroughtheorganizationaldevicesofpromotionbyseniority,pensionsincrementalsalaries,etc., allofwhicharedesignedto provideincentivesfordisciplinedactionandconformitytotheofficialregulations.Theofficialistacitlyexpectedtoandlargelydoesadapthisthoughts,feelingsandactionstotheprospectofthiscareer. Buttheseverydeviceswhichincreasetheprobabilityofconformancealsoleadtoanover-concernwithstrictadherencetoregulationswhichinducestimidity,conservatism,andtechnicism.Displacementofsentimentsfromgoalsontomeansisfosteredbythetremendoussymbolicsignificanceofthemeans(rules).
Napredovanje: svijet šefova
Anotherfeatureofthebureaucraticstructuretendstoproducemuchthesameresult.Functionarieshavethesenseofacommondestinyfor allthosewho worktogether.Theysharethesameinterests,especiallysincethereisrelativelylittlecompetitioninsofar aspromotionisintermsofseniority.In-groupaggressionisthusminimizedandthisarrangementisthereforeconceivedtobepositivelyfunctionalforthebureaucracy.However,theespritdecorpsandinformalsocialorganizationwhichtypicallydevelopsinsuchsituationsoftenleadsthepersonneltodefendtheirentrenchedinterestsratherthantoassisttheirclienteleandelectedhigherofficials.--,ifthebureaucratsbelievethattheirstatus isnotadequatelyrecognizedbyanincomingelectedofficial,detailedinformationwillbewithheldfromhim,leadinghimtoerrorsforwhichhe isheldresponsible.Or,ifheseekstodominatefully,andthusviolatesthesentimentofself-integrityofthebureaucrats, hemayhavedocumentsbroughttohiminsuchnumbersthathecannotmanagetosignthemall, letalonereadthem.Thisillustratesthedefensiveinformalorganizationwhichtendsto arisewheneverthereisanapparentthreattotheintegrityofthegroup.
Depersonalization
Anotherfeatureofthebureaucraticstructure,thestressondepersonalizationofrelationships,alsoplaysitspartinthebureaucrat’strainedincapacity.Thepersonalitypatternofthebureaucratisnucleatedaboutthisnormofimpersonality.Boththisandthecategorizingtendency,whichdevelopsfromthedominantroleofgeneral,abstractrules,tendtoproduceconflictinthebureaucrat’scontactswiththepublicorclientele.Sincefunctionariesminimizepersonalrelationsandresorttocategorization,thepeculiaritiesofindividualcasesareoftenignored. Buttheclientwho,quiteunderstandably, isconvincedofthespecialfeaturesofhis own problemoftenobjectstosuchcategoricaltreatment.Stereotypedbehaviorisnotadaptedtotheexigenciesofindividualproblems.Theimpersonaltreatmentofaffairswhichare attimesofgreat personalsignificancetotheclientgivesrise tothechargeof“arrogance”and“haughtiness”ofthebureaucrat.Thus, attheGreenwichEmploymentExchange,theunemployedworkerwho issecuringhis insurancepaymentresentswhathedeemstobe“theimpersonalityand, attimes,theapparentabruptnessandevenharshnessofhistreatmentbytheclerks....Somemencomplainofthesuperiorattitudewhichtheclerkshave.”
Solidarityingroup
Thebureaucrat,inpartirrespectiveofhispositionwithinthehierarchy,actsas arepresentativeofthepowerandprestigeoftheentirestructure.Inhisofficialrole he isvestedwithdefiniteauthority.Thisoftenleadstoanactuallyorapparentlydomineeringattitude,whichmayonlybeexaggeratedbyadiscrepancybetweenhispositionwithinthehierarchyandhispositionwithreference tothepublic.Protestandrecoursetootherofficialsonthepartoftheclientareoftenineffectiveorlargelyprecludedbythepreviouslymentionedespritdecorpswhichjoinstheofficialsintoa more orlesssolidaryingroup.Thissourceofconflictmaybeminimizedinprivateenterprisesincetheclientcanregisteraneffectiveprotestbytransferringhistradetoanotherorganizationwithinthecompetitivesystem. Butwiththemonopolisticnatureofthepublicorganization, nosuchalternative ispossible.Moreover,inthiscase,tensionisincreasedbecauseofadiscrepancybetweenideologyandfact:thegovernmentalpersonnelareheldtobe“servantsofthepeople”, butinfacttheyareoftensuperordinate,andreleaseoftensioncanseldombeaffordedbyturningtootheragenciesforthenecessaryservice.Thistensionisinpartattributabletotheconfusionofthestatusofbureaucratandclient;theclientmayconsiderhimselfsociallysuperior totheofficialwho is atthemomentdominant.
Conflict
Thus,withrespecttotherelationsbetweenofficialsandclientele, onestructuralsourceofconflictisthepressureforformalandimpersonaltreatmentwhenindividual,personalizedconsiderationisdesiredbytheclient.Theconflictmaybeviewed,then, asderivingfromtheintroductionofinappropriateattitudesandrelationships.Conflictwithinthebureaucraticstructurearisesfromtheconversesituation,namely,whenpersonalizedrelationshipsaresubstitutedforthestructurallyrequiredimpersonalrelationships.Thistypeofconflictmaybecharacterizedasfollows.

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Disfunkcije http___www.youtube.com_watch_v=3qvGZHNL5fo