Key players of the Indian removal act
Most advanced tribe of Native Americans who lived in Georgia.Some lived traditional hunting and farming lifestyles, but many took on the white settlers ways such as adopting Christianity.Discovery of gold in Dahlonega further led to the demand for the removal.Lived in the Northwest corner of GeorgiaTrail of Tears led them to settling in Oklahoma.
“The Showcase of the Cherokee Nation” was the two story mansion of Chief James Vann.
Native American nations made up of fourteen tribes(Yamacraw, Yamasee, and Ocmulgee)Known for their bravery and carrying on the ways of their fathersOutnumbered European settlers during Georgia’s colonial period.Sided with English during American RevolutionCivil war broke out among the Creeks; Red Stick WarRed sticks-those who wanted warWhite sticks-those who wantedpeace
Cherokee who created a written language based upon syllables spoken, called asyllabary.The language was taught to Cherokee throughout.First Indians to have their own written languageUsedintheirnational newspaper,The Cherokee Phoenixand in creating a Cherokeeconstitution.
Alexander McGillivrayCreek Chief who ordered attacks on pioneers in order to protect his tribe, during the Oconee War.In a peace agreement with Pres. Washington, he signed the Treaty of New York giving up all land east of the Oconee River in exchange for:Protectiontools and animalsthe promise that no whites settlers would not go west beyond the Oconee River.
Interesting Detail: At the same time as the Yazoo Land Fraud which was resolved by Georgia giving up land and the FEDERAL government agreed to remove all Indians from Georgia.
Lawyer and 7thU.S. PresidentWas friendly with Native Americans, especially the Cherokee, when he needed help fighting wars.He fought against the Indians in the War of 1812After being elected President, he pushed for the passing of the Indian Removal Act that called for all Native Americans to be relocated to western territories..Interesting Detail~ This act ignored the Supreme court ruling (Worcester vs. Georgia) that the Cherokee Nations was sovereign..
Aplantation owning Creek chief who promoted a lifestyle of farming and slaveholding.Fought along side Andrew Jackson in the Creek WarHe and Georgia’s governor developed the Second Treaty of Indian Springs in which the U.S. paid him $200,000 to give up the last of Creek land in Georgia.The other Creeks disagreed with the treaty and brutally murdered him outside his home.Angered his tribesman by constantly siding with the U.S. government including the Red Sticks War.
ChiefJusticeof the SupremeCourt who issuedthe ruling in favor of the Cherokee in Worcester vs. GeorgiaThis1832 Supreme Court case upheld the Cherokee Nation’s claim that it was asovereign nationand thus could not be moved without their consent.
Interesting fact: President Andrew Jackson did not enforce the ruling of the Supreme Court, therefore he did not meet his Constitutional requirements as president.
John RossCherokee Chief who fought the Indian Removal Act until 1838took a petition with 15,000 signatures to protest Indian removal (90% were from the Cherokee).Helped Cherokee take control of their forced expulsion by negotiating a deal with the U.S. government to pay his way to Oklahoma.Ross’ wife died on the Trail of Tears.Once in Oklahoma he helped reestablish the Cherokee NationCreated government buildingsServed as principal chief until his death
MajorRidgeFought with Jackson in Creek WarIn 1835, hejoined a minority of Cherokees in signingThe Treaty of NewEchotathat cededall remaining Cherokee landto the U.S. government.He movedto Oklahomawhere he wasambushed and murdered near his new plantation in IndianTerritory.He also adopted the lifestyle of running a plantation and became a political leader for the Creek Nation
You will be provided with a list of dates and events to add to your timeline.You and your partner will use textbook pages 192 – 203 to describe what took place with each event including key people.
Timeline of Events in Order
Treaty of New York (1790)Yazoo Land Fraud (1795)ADDLouisiana Purchase (1803)ADDLand Lottery (1805 - 1833)Sticks/White Sticks/Battle of Horseshoe Bend (1813)Federal Road (1815) ~page 182 or chapter 6, section3Created the Syllabary (1820/1821)Treaty of Indian Springs (1821)Second Treaty of Indian Springs (1825)Golddiscovered in Dahlonega (1828)Congress passed the Indian Removal Act (1830)Worcester vs Georgia (1832)NewEchota(1835)Cherokee removed by Trail of Tears (1838)Treaty of Washington (1871)REMOVE Cherokee created a language
1790- Treaty of New York
Signed byAlexander McGillivrayand GeorgeWashington.Treaty of friendship created between the Creek nation and the United StatesCeded Creek lands east of the Ocmulgee in return for protection, tools and animals, and as long as the U.S. promised to honor the boundaries of the remaining Creek lands west of the Oconee River.
1795- Yazoo Land Fraud
Georgia ceded the land to the U.S. government for 1.25 million dollars and the promise that theU.S. would relinquish Indian land claims in the state and remove the Creek Indians from Georgia.
1803- Louisiana purchase
In 1803 Thomas Jefferson, the country’s third president, boughtthe Louisiana Territory from France for $15 million. This transaction, which was known as the Louisiana Purchase, doubled the size of the country. The United States now extended west to the Rocky Mountains.
1805- 1833: Land Lottery
Between 1805 – 1833 the state of Georgia used land lotteries to distribute land taken from the Creek and Cherokee Indians.Additional Information:1805, 1807, 1820, 1821, and 1827 lotteries involved Creeklands1820lottery involved Creek andCherokeelandTwo1832 lotteries and one in 1833 involved Cherokeelands.
1813: The Creek war
Creek Civil War.Divided into two groups:The Red Sticks who wanted warThe White Sticks who did not.The Red Sticks attacked Fort Mims killing about 400 people.With help from the White Sticks and Cherokees, General Andrew Jackson defeated the Red Sticks at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend forcing the Creeks to give up their lands (22 million acres) in present day Alabama.Interesting Detail- The Cherokee also fought alongside General Jackson during the American Revolution.
1815- Federal Road
TheOld FederalRoad wasbuilt in 1815 to run from Athens north through Cherokee territory into Tennessee
1820- Creation of the syllabary
Sequoya created a languagebased upon syllables spoken, called a syllabary.The language was taught to Cherokee throughout.First Indians to have their own written languageUsed in their national newspaper,The Cherokee Phoenixand in creating a Cherokeeconstitution.
1821- Treaty of Indian springs
Lower Creek ceded land to the state of Georgia in return for cash payments totaling $200,000 over a 14 year period.
1825- second treaty of Indian springs
Negotiated by McIntosh. ItsurrenderedallCreek territory eastof the Chattahoochee and accepted relocation west of the Mississippi.
1828- Dahlonega gold rush
The1829discovery of gold in the Cherokee Nationinspireda mad rush for the mineral.Thousandspoured into Georgia desperate to findriches,totally ignoring theclaims and rightsofCherokeein the area.Georgia legislature passed a law that placed part of the Cherokee land under state control declaring all Cherokee law null and void.Eventually refused the Cherokee any right to the gold mined in Dahlonega.
1830- Congress passed Indian removal act
The Indian Removal Act was passed by Congress on May 28,1830. Thelaw authorizedPresident Andrew Jacksonto negotiate with southern Indian tribes for their removal to federal territory west of the Mississippi River in exchange for their ancestral homelands.
1832 - Worcestervs. Georgia(Indians’ Last Hope)
As a protest in behalf of the Indians, Rev. Samuel Worchester and ten other people refused to sign allegiance to Georgia’s governor.They were arrested and eventually found guilty, but the Governor agreed to pardon anyone who would take an oath of loyalty to the state.The case was taken to the Supreme Court where Chief Justice John Marshall ruledthat Cherokee territory was not subject to state law because they were a sovereign nation and Worcester was to be set free.Everyone, including President Andrew Jackson, refused to honor the ruling.
Cherokeetrader MajorRidge anda small number of others agreed to sign the government’s treaty. The treaty said the Cherokee would move west, and Georgia would give them a little money and food for the trip.
1733- 1805Treaty of New York signed by Alexander McGillivray
1814War of 1812Creek/Red Sticks WarBattle of Horseshoe Bend
1818 - 1832Treaty of Indian Springs signed by McIntoshTreaty of WashingtonGa Land Lottery
1838 - Trail of tears
President Martin Van Buren ordered the U.S. military to forcefully remove the Cherokee from Georgia.Led by General Winfield Scot, stockades were built as temporary housing for the Indians where many died from the poor conditions.Some were loaded on boats on the Mississippi and Tennessee , but most were forced to march the 700-800 mile walk leading to the death of thousands.
CONDITIONSTook up to 6 monthsFood provided by U.S. government was poorFaced winter, snow, and food shortages.4,000 died in prison before marching west.