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Chapter 3
Careers in Health Care
General Information
Types of Degree’sAssociate’s Degree-Awarded by a Career/Technical College or a Community College upon completion of a 2 year program of studyBachelor’s Degree-Awarded by a College or University after a prescribed course of study that usually lasts four or more yearsMaster’s Degree-Awarded by a College or University upon completion of one or more years post Bachelor’s degreeDoctorate, Doctoral, or Doctor’s Degree-Awarded by a College or University upon completion of two or more years post Master’s Degree
Health Care Competency Awards
Certification-A person has fulfilled requirements of education and performance and meets the standards and qualifications established by the professional association or government agency that regulates a particular career. Types: Certified Dental Assistant, Certified Laboratory Technician, Certified Medical Assistant.Registration-Performed by a regulatory body that administers examinations and maintains a current list or qualified personnel in a given health care area.Licensure-Process whereby a government agency authorizes individuals to work in a given occupation.
To obtain a certification, registration or licensure, graduation from an accredited program is required.Ensures that the program of study meets the established quality of competency standards and prepares the student for employment in the health career
Continuing Education Units
Are required to renew licenses or maintain certification or registration in many states.Must obtain additional hours of education in the specific health career area during a specified period
Levels of Training
Professional- Four or more years of college with a bachelor’s master’s or doctoral degreeTechnologist or Therapist-Three to four years of college plus work experience, usually bachelor’s degree and, at times, master’s degreeTechnician- Two-year associates degree, special health science technology education, or three to four years of on-the-job-trainingAide or Assistant-Specific number of hours of specialized education or one or more years of training combining classroom and or on the job training
Career Clusters
Therapeutic Services-Changing the health status of patients over timeDental Careers-Focus of the health of the teeth and the soft tissue of the mouthEmergency Medical Services-Provide prehospital care to victims of accidents, injuries or sudden illness. (First Responder-First person to arrive at the scene of illness or injury)Medical Careers-Broad category that encompasses physicians and other individuals that work with physiciansMental and Social Services Careers-Focus on helping people with mental or emotional disorders or those who are developmentally delayed or mentally impaired. Social workers help individuals deal with illnesses, employment or community problems.
Career Clusters
Mortuary Careers-Career that everyone will need-preparing the body, meeting the spiritual needs of the living and cremation or burying of the body.Nursing Careers-Provide care for patients as directed by physicians, focuses on the mental emotional and physical needs of the patient.Nutrition and Dietary Services-Careers that recognize the importance of nutrition and physical fitness to good health.Veterinary Careers-Providing care to all types of animalsVison Services-Provide care to prevent and treat vison disorders
Nursing Requirements
Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BS/BSN) is a four-year degree offered at colleges and universities:Prepares graduates to engage in the full scope of professional nursing practice across all healthcare settingsFirst two years often concentrate on psychology, human growth and development, biology, microbiology, organic chemistry, nutrition, and anatomy and physiology.Final two years often focus on adult acute and chronic disease; maternal/child health; pediatrics; psychiatric/mental health nursing; and community health nursing.Is intended to result in a deeper understanding of the cultural, political, economic,  and social issues that affect patients and influence healthcare deliveryIncludes nursing theory, physical and behavioral sciences, and humanities with additional content in research, leadership, and may include such topics as healthcare economics, health informatics, and health policy
Nursing Requirementscont…
UndergraduateDiploma in Nursing, once the most common route to RN licensure and anursing career, is available through hospital-based schools of nursingAssociate Degree in Nursing (ADN) is a two-year degree offered by community colleges and hospital-based schools of nursing that prepares individuals for a defined technical scope of practice.GraduateOffer additional routes to advancing the expertise of registered nurses:Master’s Degree (MSN) programs offer a number of tracks designed to prepare Advanced Practice Nurses, nurse administrators, and nurse educators.Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) programs are research-focused whose graduates typically teach and/or conduct researchDoctor of Nursing Practice (DNP) programs focus on clinical practice or leadership roles
Physical Therapy Requirements
The length of professional DPT programs is typically 3 years. Primary content areas in the curriculum may include, but are not limited to, biology/anatomy, cellular histology, physiology, exercise physiology, biomechanics, kinesiology, neuroscience, pharmacology, pathology, behavioral sciences, communication, ethics/values, management sciences, finance, sociology, clinical reasoning, evidence-based practice, cardiovascular and pulmonary, endocrine and metabolic, and musculoskeletal. Eighty percent (80%) of the DPT curriculum comprises classroom (didactic) and lab study and the remaining 20 percent (20%) is dedicated to clinical education. PT students spend on average 27.5 weeks in their final clinical experience.Bachelor's Degree Required?Most physical therapist education programs require applicants to earn a bachelor's degree prior to admission into the professional DPT program. Other programs offer a 3+3 curricular format in which 3 years of specific pre-professional (undergraduate/pre-PT) courses must be taken before the student can advance into a 3-year professional DPT program.Freshmen Entry -A few programs recruit all or a portion of students directly from high school into a guaranteed admissions program. High school students accepted into these programs can automatically advance into the professional phase of the PT program pending the completion of specific undergraduate courses and any other stated contingencies (eg, minimum GPA).
Physical TherapyCont…
Tuition and FeesThe mean tuition rates per year for DPT programs in 2013 were as follows:Public In-state: $14427(range: $3387 to $45340)Public Out-of-state:$29157(range: $8425 to $65156)Private:$31716(range:$19500 to $94020)Specialty CertificationPhysical therapists have the opportunity to become board-certified clinical specialists through theAmerican Board of Physical TherapySpecialities(ABPTS). Specialization is the process by which a physical therapist builds on a broad base of professional education and practice to develop a greater depth of knowledge and skills related to a particular area of practice. Specialty certification is voluntary. PTs are not required to be certified in order to practice in a specific area.Physical therapists can become board-certified specialists in the following areas:Cardiovascular and PulmonaryClinical ElectrophysiologyGeriatricsNeurologyOrthopaedicsPediatricsSports Physical TherapyWomen's Health
Medical Doctor
Pharmacy Requirements
Radiology Technician
Dental Assistant
Dental Hygienist
Athletic Trainer





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