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Measuring and Recording Intake and Output - Quia

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Nurse Assistant Skills
Nurse assistants are important membersof the health care team
Measuring and RecordingIntake and Output
Measuring and RecordingIntake and Output(continued)
Intake: fluids taken in by patientWhat is included in intakeOutput: fluids eliminated by patientWhat is included in outputRecords must be accurateFluids usually measured by metric system
Measuring and RecordingIntake and Output(continued)
Agencies follow different policies for recording I&OCareful instructions should be given to patients on I&OStandard precautions
Feeding a Patient
Good nutrition is an important part of a patient’s treatmentMake mealtimes as pleasant as possibleMealtimes are regarded as social timeProper preparation for mealtimeDelay of mealsCheck food tray
Feeding a Patient
Allow patient to feed themselveswhenever possibleTest temperature of foodPrinciples to follow while feedingRelaxed, unhurried atmosphereObserve amount eatenObserve for any signs of choking
Assisting with a Bedpan/Urinal
Elimination of body waste is essentialTerminologyMany patients sensitive about using bedpan/urinalAccurate observations importantStandard precautionsUse of gloves important
Providing Catheter andUrinary-Drainage Unit Care
Catheters: hollow tubes usually made of rubber or plasticFrench or straight catheterFoley catheterExternal condom catheterUrinary-drainage unitsLeg bags for ambulation
Providing Catheter andUrinary-Drainage Unit Care
Careful observation of catheter anddrainage unitWhen catheter and urinary-drainage unit in place, preferable never to disconnect unitIf necessary to disconnect catheter, follow agency policyCatheter care
Providing Catheter andUrinary-Drainage Unit Care
Observation of urineFollow correct procedure to empty drainage unit to prevent contamination and infectionBladder training programKeep records
Summary
Assisting patient with intake and output important part of careProvide privacy and respect patient’s rights at all timesObserve standard precautionsFollow correct procedures
Collecting Stool/Urine Specimens
Laboratory tests are performed on specimens to detect diseaseSpecimens must be collected correctly for tests to be accurateRoutine urine specimenClean-catch or midstream-voided urine
Collecting Stool/Urine Specimens
Sterile catheterized urine specimen24-hour urine specimenRoutine stool (feces) specimenStool for occult bloodLabel all specimens correctlyUse standard precautions
Enemas and Rectal Treatments
EnemasRetention enemasNonretentionenemasTypes of enemasCleansingDisposableOil retention
Enemas and Rectal Treatments(continued)
Impactions—removed by licensed or advanced care providerRectal tubeSuppositories
Summary
Enemas and rectal treatments cannot be administered without a doctor’s orderFollow correct procedures at all timesObserve standard precautions to prevent spread of infection
Applying Restraints
Chemical restraints—medicationsPhysical restraints—protective devicesConditions that may require restraintsTypes of physical restraintsPoints to remember when using restraintsComplications of restraints
Applying Restraints
Most health care facilities have specific rules and policies regarding the use of restraintsBe aware of legal responsibilities
Administering Oxygen
Blood must have oxygenSigns of oxygen shortageDeficiency of oxygen (hypoxia)Methods of administration of oxygenWays of providing oxygen to the patientHumidifier
Administering Oxygen(continued)
Safety precautionsPulseoximetersPoints to check while oxygen in useLegal considerations
Giving Postmortem Care
Care given to the body immediatelyfollowing deathBegins when a doctor has pronouncedthe patient deadDifficult but essential part of patient care
Giving Postmortem Care
Dealing with death and dyingPatient’s rights apply after deathFamily member may want to view bodyProcedure for postmortem care will varywith different facilities
Giving Postmortem Care
Morgue kitsCare of valuables and belongingsTwo people often work together tocomplete careObserve agency policy
Summary
The nursing assistant provides quality personal care for patientsMany skills are required to performapproved proceduresStandard precautions must be observedRecord observations carefullyKnow your legal responsibilities
Measuring and RecordingIntake and Output
A large part of the body is fluid, so there must be a balance between the amount of fluid taken into the body and the amount lost from the bodySwelling and edemaDehydrationIntake and output (I&O) forms varybetween facilities

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Measuring and Recording Intake and Output - Quia