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Lifecycle costing

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Life Cycle Cost Analysis
Life Cycle Cost (LCC)
Life cycle costing, LCC, is theprocessofeconomic analysisto asses thetotal costof ownership of a product, including its cost ofinstallation,operation,maintenance,conversion, and/ordecommission.
Life Cycle Cost (LCC)
By using LCC, total cost of the product can be calculated over the total span of product life cycle.
Life Cycle Cost (LCC)
LCC is a economic tool which combines both engineering art and science to make logical business decision.This analysis provides important inputs in the decision making process in the product design, development and use.
LCC for product supplier
By using LCC, product suppliers can optimize their design by evaluation of alternatives and by performing trade-off studies.By using LCC, product suppliers can evaluate various operating and maintenance cost strategies (to assist product users).
LCC for customer
By using LCC, customers can evaluate and compare alternative products.By using LCC, customers can assess economic viability of projects or products.
Why use LCC?
Typical conflict in most of the company:Project Engineeringwants tominimize capital costsas the only criteria,Maintenance Engineeringwants tominimize repair hoursas the only criteria,Productionwants tomaximize operation hoursas the only criteria,Reliability Engineeringwants tonullify failuresas the only criteria,Accountingwants tomaximize project net present valueas the only criteria,Shareholderswant toincrease stockholder wealthas the only criteria.
Why use LCC?
LCC can be used as a management decision tool forsynchronizingthe divisionalconflictsby focusing onfacts,money, andtime.
Why use LCC?
Why should engineers be concerned about cost elements?It is important for engineers tothink like managersandact like engineersfor a profit maximizing organization.
Cost element
For an equipment, there are TWO cost elements:1)Initial Cost, and2)Operation & Maintenance CostThe identification of cost elements and their sub-division are based on the purpose and scope of the LCC study.
Cost element
Initial Cost:Design & development cost,Investment on asset, or cost of equipment,Installation cost or erection & commission cost.
Cost element
Operation & Maintenance Cost:Labour cost,Energy cost,Spare & maintenance cost,Raw material cost.
ComputationofLife Cycle Cost Analysis
(Steps for LCCA)
Steps for computation of LCC
Step 1: Determine time for each cost element,Step 2: Estimate value of each cost element,Step 3: Calculate Net Present Value of each element, for every year (over its time period),Step 4: Calculate LCC by adding all cost element, at every year,Step 5: Analyze the results.
Step 1: Determination of time
Determination of life cycle of the product (i.e. equipment, in this case).This Life cycle is not similar toconventional concept of Product Life Cycle.Conventional concept of Product Life Cycle implies to the time span based on demand of the product in the market, starting from launch of the product up to the time when company withdraw the product from the market. That is purely a marketing concept.
To be continued……
Step 1: Determination of time
In LCC analysis of an equipment, life cycle means the life of the product that is installed in the plant, i.e.productive life timeof the product.The product supplier provides the life cycle depending on design calculation and experience.Based on supplier’s data, customer decides the Life Cycle, i.e. how long he/ she wants to use the machine. Customer considers the effect of available maintenance facility, technological obsolescence and economic uncertainty factor, also.
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Step 1: Determination of time
After that, company decides the time span for each component.Example, say, a company decides that total life cycle of the product will be 10 years from the allocation the fund, among which first one year will be initial cost zone and remaining 9 years will be under operation and maintenance cost zone.
Step 2: Estimation of value
Estimate monetary value for each cost element.This estimated value will be incurred in every year. This value is basically future income at each year, which is estimated.To estimate the value, various source can be used; e.g. calculation based on facts and experience, MIS report for similar existing machines, etc.
Step 3: Net Present Value
Money has a time value.The present value of future income or future cost can be calculated by usingdiscounting factorandinflation factor.
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Step 3: Net Present Value
Discount factorThediscount rateis an interest rate, a central bank charges depository institutions that borrow reserves from it.For example, let's say Mr. Ram expects Rs. 1,000 in one year's time. To determine the present value of this Rs. 1,000 Ram would need to discount it by a particular rate of interest (often the risk-free rate but not always). Assuming a discount rate of 10%, the Rs. 1,000 in a year's time would be equivalent of Rs. 909.09 to Ram today (i.e. 1000/[1+0.10]).
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Step 3: Net Present Value
Inflation factorTheinflation rateis the percentage by which prices of goods and services rise beyond their average levels. It is the rate by which the purchasing power of the people in a particular geography has declined in a specified period.
To be continued……
Step 3: Net Present Value
Formula for Net Present Value (NPV)C (1+i/100)(n-1)PV= -----------------------(1+d/100)nwhere,C = any cost element at nthyearI = inflation rated = discount rate/ interest rate
Step 4: Summation of PVs
PVs of each cost elements is calculated for an equipment (at every year).PVs of each cost element in a year are added.The process is done for every year over the life cycle, i.e. LCC is calculated for every year.
Step 5: Analysis
The datas collected from LCC are analyzed.If one product has to be selected among multiple equipments, then LCC is calculated for every product.Datas for every product are analyzed, and thelowest LCC optionbecomepreferred.But lowest LCC option may not necessarily be implementedwhen other considerations such asrisk, available budgets, political and environmental concernsare taken into account.
An important reminder…..
LCC provides critical information to the overall decision-making process, butnot the final answer.
EstimationofLife Cycle Cost
With a typical case study!
Case Study
A highly productive foundry shop has one sophisticated robot operated core making machine (made in Italy).Due to increase of demand for its casting, the foundry shop wants to install one new core making machine.For new machine, there are two options:Similar sophisticated robotic machine, orSemi-automated machine.
Option 1
Initial cost
Option 1
Initial cost (IC)Computation of PV of ICD(1+i/100)(n-1)A(1+i/100)(n-1)I(1+i/100)(n-1)PV= ------------------------ + ---------------------- + -----------------------(1+d/100)n(1+d/100)n(1+d/100)nn is the year on which PV will be calculated, here n=1 year, onlyInterest rate, d=8%Inflation rate, i=5%0(1+5/100)059.4(1+5/100)00.06(1+5/100)0PV= ----------------------- + ------------------------ + ---------------------(1+8/100)1(1+8/100)1(1+8/100)1From calculation,PV of IC = 55.5 million INR
Option 1
Operation & Maintenance Cost
Option 1
Operation & Maintenance cost (OC)Computation of PV of OCTotal OC= L+E+S+M=34.6 Million INRPV of OC at nthyear,OC(1+i/100)(n-1)PV= ------------------------(1+d/100)nCumulative value of OC after nthyear (in terms of PV)OC(1+i/100)(n-1)=Ʃ------------------------(1+d/100)nPV of OC and cumulative OC at different year to be calculated by using this formula.
Option 1
COMPUTATION OF LCC: TABLE 1
Option 1
Computation of LCCIn the previous calculation, expected future values of OC at all the years were same, i.e. 34.6 Million INR.This expected value can be different for different years, too.
Option 2
Different cost element for option 2 (i.e. Semi-automated machine) has been estimated and final calculation for LCC has been done.
Option 2
COMPUTATION OF LCC: TABLE 2
Analysis
Analysis
The analysis shows:initial cost of semi-automated machine is lower.But, the long term LCC is much lower for Robotic machine.Considering LCCA,the robotic machine is preferred compared to the semi-automated machine,for this particular application.
Capital Budgeting & LCC
LCC is one of the important tool for capital budgeting.Economist Joel Dean has suggested that, capital expenditure should be defined in terms of economic behaviour rather than in terms of accounting convention.LCC is one of the useful tool which enables investors to analyze investment in terms of economic behaviour.
Thank you.

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Lifecycle costing