Chapter 1 Notes – Point of View and Narrator
Point of View – The way the authors allows the reader to “see” and “hear” what is going onFirst person – The story is told from the perspective of a single narratorNarrator – The person telling the storyIs the narrator reliable or unreliable?How can one tell?Interactions with other charactersJudgments that fit our ownWhat does the character see as important?What does the character reveal about himself?
Chapter 1 notes – Voice
Voice – The specific diction and tone that the author chooses for the piece of writingExample:"Dearest reader, I humbly entreat you to eschew the latest celebrity tittle-tattle and instead devote your attention to diction and tone.""Listen up! Drop the gossip magazine and get with the diction/tone program!”What’s the difference here?
Chapter 1 Notes - Characterization
The way that an author uses descriptive language including dialogue to give a character personality traits in a text.Indirect characterization – When an author uses dialogue and actions to teach the reader something about the character. (Example: You learn through the characters speaking to one another that one of them is lying. Therefore, you judge that character is dishonest.)Direct characterization – When an author tells you about the character. (Example: The author tells you what the character looks like.)
Chapter 1 notes - Setting
Historical Context – Time period in history when a work take placeTime period in history when a work take placeSetting – The time and place where the action occursThe historical context and setting plays an important role in the plot, setting and character development through out The Great Gatsby – It already has!
Chapter 1 Notes – NickCarraway
Nick says…“TheCarrawaysare something of a clan, and we have a tradition that we are descendents from the Duke ofBuccleuch…”What does this say about Nick’s heritage? How does this relate the setting?“I lived at West Egg, the – well, less fashionable of the two, though this is a most superficial tag to express the bizarre and not a little sinister contrast between them.”How does he feel about West Egg being the “less fashionable”? Does he agree?Why does he use “bizarre” and “sinister” to describe the contrast between the two communities?
Chapter 1 Notes – Flashback
Flashback is when a story starts at a certain place in time and then reverts to the past.Example: The narrator (Nick) starts the novel telling the reader that he is going to recount the events that lead up to his disillusionment. Then, he starts the story from a past event (when he first moved to West Egg).
Chapter 1 notes - Allusion
An allusion is a reference to something that the reader should already have in their frame of reference.Example: Nick refers to “New Haven” – This is where Yale is located. I know this so I know he went to college at Yale.The author is alluding to something that he assumes the reader already knows. It’s an allusion!
Chapter 1 Notes – paradox
A paradox is something that appears contradictory in nature.Example: Daisy – She throws the dinner party with Nick and *seems* happy – Laughing, teasing, relaxing…But really, she is unhappy because she knows Tom is cheating on her.
Chapter 1 notes - motifs
Motifs are recurring structures, contrasts, or literary devices that can help to develop and inform the text’s major themes.**This always makes me think of interior decorating!Motifs in Gatsby to look for:ColorsCars/Driving
Chapter 1 notes - Theme
Theme = topic + author’s opinion on the topicA Themeis the fundamental and often universal idea explored in a literary work.Topics for themes in Gatsby:Self DiscoveryHopeReality vs IllusionRealization of The American Dream
Chapter 2 Notes - Juxtaposition
Juxtaposition is when 2 things are set up side by side to highlight the their similarities or differencesEast Egg – Dinner with Daisy, Jordan, etc juxtaposed with the valley’s party with Myrtle, her sister Catherine, etcWhat do you think the author wants you to get from this set up?How are these 2 settings alike? Different?How are these characters alike? Different?
Chapter 2 Notes - symbolism
Symbolism is when an ordinary thing has a meaning beyond what is first perceived – A figurative meaningThe ValleyWhere is it locatedWhat does it look like?What does it call to mind?Dr. T.J. Eckleburg’s eyesWhere are they located?What do they look like?What do they call to mind?
Chapter 2 notes – Theme topic: Corruption of the American dream
What is the American Dream? The believe that everyone can achieve true happiness and be rich if they work hard enough.Who can have it?What does it take to get it?Do we have any examples of characters who have obtained it yet?Who should be “happy” right now in the novel?Tom and the American DreamMyrtle an the American DreamDaisy and the American Dream
Chapter 2 – theme topic:realityvsillusion
Illusion is what things seem to be…..Reality is what they actually are…This will come up many times in the novelWhat do we know about Gatsby already? What did we learn in chapter 2? What is the illusion that is yet to be proved or disproved?What is the illusion of East Egg? What is it supposed to be versus what it actually is?
Chapter 2 - characterization
Setting used to characterizeMyrtle Wilson/George WilsonWhere do they live?What’s the difference between the valley and the eggs?Colors used to describe – compareAshes? Dusty? A garage?
Chapter 3 Notes:Direct Character Development
Direct characterization is when an author gives specific details about a character.Gatsby’s smile/language – page 48The author gives us direct description of his smile through the eyes of the narrator, Nick.Gatsby is an “elegant young roughneck”Gatsby uses an “elaborate formality of speech” that “just missed being absurd”
Chapter 3 Notes:Indirect Character Development
Indirect characterization is when we learn about a character by reading about decisions s/he makes, actions s/he takes – The reader judges the character based on actionsGatsby’s party – pages 39-40 – What can we deduce about Gatsby based on his party? His guests?Gatsby rumors 41, 43, 44Gatsby’s entrance – page 47“I’m afraid I’m not a very good host.”
Chapter 3 Notes: Different Types of Characters
Static characters do not change through out the course of a novelDynamic characters start the novel one way and learn something in the process – They change.Round characters have many different personality traitsFlat characters have one predominate trait that affects others around them (like a caricature in a way)
Chapter 4 notes – symbols
Cars and Driving – Is this going somewhere you think?Gatsby’s car, pg. 64 – What does it look like?Gatsby’s almost ticket, pg.68 – How did he get out of it?The hearse and the limo, pg. 68 – Why this juxtaposition? What does Nick say Gatsby’s car offers?Daisy’s car, pg.74 – What is it like? How does it work with Daisy’s name and the color she seems to wear so often?
Chapter 4 notes – theme topicAmerican dream and illusion
We now have a Gatsby’s story of his life…We now have a look at one of Gatsby’s friends…Wolfshiem…So, let’s talk the American DreamDo you believe Gatsby’s story?What do you think he has to do with Wolfshiem?Let’s just say that Gatsby has gone from rags to riches…does that fit the American Dream?How does this work with the idea of Illusion vs reality? Help me out here!
Chapter 4 notes - “New Money”
In this chapter we see Wolfshiem as another example of new money. He doesn’t try to hide it at all…why do you think new money may have gotten its bad reputation?Gatsby works so hard to not be perceived as new money…why?
Chapter 4 notes – flashback and suspense
Talk to be about the flashback in this chapter, pg 74What helped build suspense to this point where we FINALLY get the story from Jordan?Gatsby and Nick’s conversation in the car pg. 67What are we waiting for after we read chapter 4?Why did Gatsby buy his house? What do you WANT to happen?
Chapter 5 notes – Theme Topiccorruption/“new money”
Cut Nick’s lawn? WHY? pg 82Gatsby gets Nick to agree to set up tea, and then says, “…why look here old sport, you don’t make much money, do you?” pg.82What does he offer?How does this fit in to our theme?What does Nick’s reaction say about Nick?What does Gatsby’s offer say about Gatsby?Why does he bring up Wolfshiem?
Chapter 5 notes – Symbolsclocks
How do clocks make you feel? Excited? Anxious? Relieved?What is the mood of the scene with Daisy, Nick and Gatsby at tea?Clock Scene, pg. 86Let’s talk turning back the hands of time. Would you do it if you could? How about if you could go back and talk to someone you admire or love again?
Chapter 5 notes – theme topicdreamsvsreality
Gatsby caught in a lie, top of pg 90Gatsby says to Daisy that he lives in his house alone by keeping it, “full of interesting people, night and day…” Is this the reality?Gatsby’s tour of his house, pg 90-91“They’re such beautiful shirts…it makes me sad because I’ve never seen – such beautiful shirts”The green light, pg. 92Gatsby’s reaction – the “colossal significance of that light had now vanished forever.”Nick says, “His court of enchanted objects had diminished by one.”
Chapter 6 Notes – Character Development
Everyone wants to know about Gatsby! Including the reader – We have waited long enough...This is an example of suspense and it’s highlighted by the reporter coming to Gatsby’s house to ask questions...he has questions, we SO DO WE!What details do we learn about Gatsby?Pgs 98-101He’s a self-made man...Literally and figuratively....
Chapter 6 Notes – East Egg meets West Egg
Mr. Sloan, his lady friend and Tom visit GatsbyAn invitation is extended, pg 102Who extends the invitation?How does Gatsby react to the invitation?How do we know that the invitation is not in earnest?Why in the world does Fitzgerald include this scene?Are Daisy and Tom comfortable at Gatsby’s party?“I’d rather look at all these famous people in – in oblivion” – Tom“A lot of these newly rich people are just big bootleggers, you know.” – Tom“She didn’t like it.” – Gatsby
Chapter 6 Notes – Theme Topic Reality vs Illusion
What’s real? - At the end of the party, Gatsby reflects on how Daisy felt about it.Gatsby says, “ Can’t repeat the past?...Why of course you can!”Gatsby says, “I’m going to fix everything just the way it was before.”The first kiss...why does Nick add this scene in? Let’s read it, page 110Nick describes Gatsby’s story as “appalling sentimentality”
Chapter 6 Notes – Theme TopicHope and the American Dream
Like so many who sought and achieved the American Dream during the Roaring Twenties, Gatsby is a self-made man. He literally created himself, even changing his name in order to become a “success.”Gatsby’s story is not as unique as all the rumors about him suggest. Instead, he represents a typical member of the rags-to-riches “new money” class.No one has more hope than Gatsby....Does it make you like him more or less?
Chapter 6 Notes – Theme TopicPossessiveness
Tom says, “I wonder where the devil he met Daisy.”Gatsby says, “I feel far away from her...It’s hard to make her understand.”Nick says, “He wanted nothing less of Daisy than she should go to Tom and say, “I never loved you.””Tom says, “By God, I may old fashioned in my ideas, but women run around too much these days to suit me.”Daisy says, “...that’s the best thing a girl can be in these world, a beautiful, little fool.”
Chapter 7 Notes – SymbolismHeat
Heat is referred to several times in chapter 7Pg 115 – “Hot...hot...hot Is it hot enough for you?Is it “Hot” enough for the characters? For the reader?Why did the author choose this to be a apart of the setting?
Chapter 7 Notes – SymbolismVoice
Who’s voice is mentioned? What the quote again....Money and the voice....Page ? Nick says it, help me find it!
Chapter 7 Notes – SymbolismCars
Now do you understand why all of the references to cars?
Chapter 7 Notes – SymbolismEyes
TJ Eckleburg again...pg 124What happens under these watchful eyes?
Chapter 7 - Irony
Think about the car crash...who gets hurt? Who hurts her?What is ironic about this?
Chapter 8 n0tes - mood
The feeling the reader gets while reading the novelFirst page of Chapter 8 – What phrases give a foreboding mood?“fog horn groaning” – Also an example of personification“…he was leaning against a table in the hall heavy with dejection or sleep.”
Chapter 8 notes - flashback
Gatsby recounts his courtship with DaisyWhy does Nick say he is so honest at this point?Pg. 148 - …because “Jay Gatsby” had broken up like glass against Tom’s hard malice, and the long secret extravaganza was played out.”
Chapter 8 notes – motif: Color
Blue –Gray –Pool/Water...
Chapter 8 notes – symbolismeyes/seeing
Pg 159 – George says, “I told her she might fool me but she couldn’t fool God.”Pg 160 – “God sees everything.”What is he referring to? Where have we seen this before?Do you get the feeling that George is a little crazy?
Now’s the time to figure them out!Up until now, you can only identify the topics and guess what you think Fitzgerald is trying to sayRemember Topic + Author’s opinion = ThemeOur job is to figure out what the author wants us to learn
Chapter 8 notes - Themes illusionvsreality
Illusion vs Reality“She was the first “nice” girl he had ever known.” – Nick’s judgment of DaisyWhy does he put “nice” in quotes?How does this signify an illusion?Pg 148 – What does Gatsby love more Daisy or the illusion of Daisy?“…he had never been in such a beautiful house before.”“…many men had already loved Daisy – it increased her value in his eyes.”Gatsby creates the illusion of himself“He might have despised himself, for he had certainly taken her under false pretenses.”
Chapter 8 notes – ThemeCorruption of the American Dream
Let’s review – The American Dream is the believe that everyone can achieve true happiness and be rich if they work hard enough.Gatsby attains the American Dream?Is he rich?Is he a self-made man?Did he work hard? Or not?Is there corruption involved?Do you think it is on purpose that, “the chauffeur,” “one of Wolfsheim’s proteges” heard the shots and didn’t think “anything much about them?”
Chapter 8 notes – themeself discovery
Character we are focusing on for self discovery is NickWhat has he learned?“They’re a rotten crowd,” I shouted across the lawn. “You’re worth the whole damn bunch put together.” pg 154Who is he talking about?Why is he glad he said it?
Chapter 9 Notes – Narrator(and Characterization)
Because we have one point of view – Nick’s POV, we only get characterization through his eyesIndirect characterization – When an author uses dialogue and actions to teach the reader something about the character.The events that the author chose to have Nick be a part of (Parties...Daisy’s first, Myrtle’s apartment, Gatsby’s, Daisy’s second w/Gatsby and the hotel scene following)We learned so much by just watching with Nick the interactions of the charactersDirect characterization – When an author tells you about the character. (Example: The author tells you what the character looks like.)Specific descriptions of Daisy’s voice, Gatsby’s smile, Tom’s imposing build, Myrtle’s figure – All came from Nick’s perspective
Chapter 9 Notes – Reliable/Unreliable Narrator
Narrator – Nick CarawayIs the narrator reliable or unreliable?How can one tell?Interactions with other characters – Gatsby/JordanJudgments that fit our own – Final chapter – dealing with Gatsby’s deathWhat does the character see as important? – What is his final judgment of Tom and Daisy vs Gatsby? What did we learn he considers important based on this?What does the character reveal about himself? Nick makes assertions about himself...He’s honest. He’s realistic. He’s fair. Is this true or not based on his actions?
Chapter 9 Notes – Point of View
Point of View – The way the authors allows the reader to “see” and “hear” what is going onFirst person – The story is told from the perspective of a single narratorWhat was good about Fitzgerald’s use of a first person narrator?The reader can track the changes of the other characters externallyAdds a sense of mysteryThe reader can track the changes of the narrator internallyAdds perspective for the readerContrasting viewpointEast Egg type of person judges a West Egg person
Chapter 9 Notes - Voice
Voice – The specific diction and tone that the author chooses for the piece of writingHow would you judge Nick’s ‘voice’?Likes to make comparisons – Daisy’s voice is “full of money”Is not always direct participant in the actionReserves judgments, as he says? Or not? – Let’s reread the first two pages...
Gatsby Due Dates
Tomorrow – Gatsby FestYou will be watching the movie AND working on your essay next week while I am proctoring the CAHSEEWednesday, March 13th– Rough draft of your essay dueFriday, March 15th– Final draft of your essay dueFriday, March 15th– Gatsby Packet dueFriday, March 15th– Final Gatsby TestALL of the information on these slides and in your packet is free game! Be ready!