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Systematic Implications of DNA variation in subfamily ...

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Fig. 8.30
MalvidsOrderBrassicalesBrassicaceae* – MustardsOrderMalvalesMalvaceae*– Mallows, cotton, chocolateOrderSapindalesSapindaceae*– Maples, lycheeRutaceae– Citrus*family required for recognition
Rosids-Malvids:Brassicales:Brassicaceae(‘Cruciferae’ - The Mustard Family)
Cosmopolitan, most diverse in the Mediterranean region, SW Asia, and western North AmericaHerbs, shrubs or trees; (sometimes herbs);glucosinolates(mustard oils) present in all taxaDiversity:3,400-3,700species in321-338generaFlowers:Sepals 4; petals 4 (cruciform), often clawed;stamens 6, all+equalor usually2 shorter and 4 longer (tetradynamous); carpels usually 2, connate, superior ovary;fruita capsule,usuallydehiscing by splitting into 2valves leaving a persistent cross-wall,asiliqueorsilicleSignificant features: 4-merousflowers;often pioneers after disturbanceSpecial uses: Many important food plants – cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower,brusselssprouts, kohlrabi (Brassicaoleracea), turnip (Brassicarapa), mustards (Brassica spp.), horseradish(Armoraciarusticana),and a wide range of ornamentalsRequired family; required genus:Brassica
cruciform petals
tetradynamousstamens(2 short + 4 long)
clawed petals
Arabidopsis thalianaThe model plant ofchoice for much ofmolecular biology.
-annuals or biennials-at least the lower leavesdeeplypinnatifid,lyrateor pinnate-racemes without bracts-sepals erect duringanthesis-petals yellow-ovary andsiliquewith aprominent beak
30+ species
spring ephemerals
Brassicaceae– often weedy or pioneering
BrassicaceaeGarlic mustard(Alliariapetiolata)
Kill it!
Rosids-Malvids:Malvales:Malvaceae(The Mallow Family)
CosmopolitanTrees, shrubs, lianas or herbs; vegetative parts withmucilage; leavesoftenpalmatelyveined andlobed (may bepinnatelyveined)orpalmatelycompound;stellate hairsDiversity:4,200species inca. 250generaFlowers: Sepals & petals5,calyxvalvate;stamens 5 to many,monadelphousorpolydelphous;carpels 2 to many, connate,superior ovary; fruit usually aloculicidalcapsule, also berry,samara,schizocarp, or drupeSignificant features:basic inflorescence unit a modified, 3-bracted cyme; flowersoften associated with conspicuous bracts forming anepicalyx;nectariesof densely packed, multicellular glandular hairs, usually on sepalsSpecial uses: cotton (Gossypium), cacao or chocolate (Theobroma), durian (Durio), balsa wood (Ochroma); many ornamentals, e.g. hibiscus (Hibiscus)Requiredfamily
-subshrubs to shrubs-seeds+globular,oftenwith hair(lint)
-subshrubs to shrubs-seeds+globular,oftenwith hair(lint)
Rosids-Malvids:Sapindales:Sapindaceae(The Maple Family)
Mainly tropical and subtropical, a few diverse in the temperate zone (e.g.,Acer,Aesculus)Trees, shrubs or lianas with tendrilsDiversity:1,450-1,580species in131-135generaFlowers:Unisexual or bisexual;sepals & petals 4-5,petals often clawed,with more or less basal appendagesadaxially; usually anextrastaminalnectar diskpresent;stamens 8 or fewer(rarely up to 12),filaments usually hairy orpapillose;carpels 2 or 3, connate,superior ovary; fruit a capsule, berry, or schizocarp;seeds with a deep fold or pocket in the seed coatSignificant features:presence ofsaponinsin manySpecial uses: lumber, maple syrup (Acersaccharum); many ornamentals; tropical fruits (longan, lychee,rambutan)Requiredfamily; required genus:Acer
-trees or sometimes shrubs-leaves opposite, simple andpalmatelylobed, rarelypinnatelyorpalmatelycompound-calyx usually 5-lobed-petals 0 or as many as the calyx lobes-ovary with 2 connate, winged carpels,2 ovules per carpel-fruit a schizocarp, splitting into 2samaroidmericarps
Some treatments retain this asAceraceae!
Rosids-Malvids:Sapindales:Rutaceae(The Citrus Family)
Nearly cosmopolitan, primarily tropical to subtropicalTrees or shrubs, sometimes with thorns, spines or pricklesDiversity:1,800-1,900species in158-161generaFlowers: Sepals & petals 4 – 5; stamens 8-10; annular nectar disk;carpels 4-5 to many, connate, superior ovary;axileplacentation; fruit a drupe, capsule, samara, cluster of follicles or modified berry with leathery, glandular rind (i.e., hesperidium inCitrus).Significant features: Aromatic oils chemically complex; simple or compound leaves with pellucid dots containing aromatic ethereal oilsSpecial uses: many desirable fruits - oranges, lemons, limes, tangerine, grapefruit (Citrus), kumquat (Fortunella), several ornamentals, e.g. cork tree (Phellodendron)Family not required
Pellucid dots
-fruit a hesperidium





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Systematic Implications of DNA variation in subfamily ...