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Carbon Footprint & Sequestration using Cover Crops

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Cover crop workshop, Oct 21st2009Bradford FarmMaeteePatana-Anake*, TimReinbott#and Bill Jacoby**Biological Engineering#Bradford Farm Research and ExtensionMizzou
Review Carbon Footprint & Sequestration using Winter Cover Crops
Outline
Terminologies – Carbon footprint & sequestrationFactor of carbon footprintCover crop selection & performance comparisonPractices in cultivationSummary
Terminologies
Terminologies
Carbon Footprintthe total set of carbon dioxide emission∆Carbon Footprint =Net Carbon Emission – Net Carbon StorageCarbon SequestrationStorage of CO2 into other form of CCover crop: CO2  Biomass
Cover crops selection&Performance comparison
Winter Cover Crop Selection
Rye (SecalecerealeL.)Provideorganic matter (Biomass)Weed reductionHairy Vetch (ViciavillosaRoth)ProvideNitrogenReference :Reinbottet al. 2004
Cover Crop Management
Applying different mix of cover crop (% by weight)No cover cropRye only (R100)Rye and Vetch(R74V26)Vetch only (V100)No tillage practice & fertilizer appliedLevel of C and N are not significantly influenced by tillage practiceReferenceZotarelliet al 2009. ,Sainjuet al. 2006
Result – Sweet Corn yield (1)
Cover crop showing less performance as increasing of Nitrogen fertilizerN is mainly contributed by Hairy VetchN contribution is range between 35 and 75 kg/haResult fromZotarelliet al. 2009
Result – Corn yield (2)
Result – Cover crop biomass yield
C is mainly contributed by RyeC contribution from cover crop ranging from 0.4 to 2.3 Mg/haC is estimate 37% of biomass yield (above ground and below ground)ReferenceSainjuet al. 2005
Result – C from Biomass
Result –Carbon Sequestration (1)
Net carbon sequestration =[the total gross organic C input] – [the organic C loss in erosion]Approximately 30% is contributed to the atmosphere25 -30 % is contributed to cultivation in first 2 to 5 yearsAssumptionLand have low in soil organic carbonCover crops are repeatedly planting each year with sweet cornReferenceGaiseret al. 2009, Ingram &Fernandes2000,Ruffo&Bollero2003
Result – Carbon Output
Outputs from planting cover cropNote: Emission of C in production of nitrogen fertilizer is estimated at 0.8575 kg C/kgReference Ingram &Fernandes2000,Sainjuet al. 2005, West &Marland2002
Practices in cultivation
Net Carbon in Cultivation
Carbon Inputs from practice in cover crop cultivationNo tillageNo irrigationPlanting (~5 gallon diesel/ha for drilling)Seed production (total 108 kg/ha)
Result – Carbon Input
Inputs from practice in cover crop cultivationNote: Planting assume to use 5 gallon/haUsing 108 kg seed/haReferenceZoterlliet al. 2009, West &Marland2002
Summary
Summary – Net Carbon Footprint
Net carbon footprint of planting Rye and Hairy vetch comparing with sweet corn yield
Thank you!
References
Zotarelliet al. (2009), Benefit of Vetch and Rye Cover Crops to Sweet Corn under no TillageSainjuet al. (2005),BicultureLegume-Cereal Cover Crops for Enhanced Biomass Yield and Carbon and NitrogenRuffo&Bollero(2003), Modeling Rye and Hairy Vetch ResidueDecompostionas a function of Degree-Days and Decomposition DaysSainjuet al. (2006), Carbon Supply and Storage in Tilled andNontilledSoil as Influenced by Cover Crops and Nitrogen FertilizationTimothy M.Reinbott(2004), Tillage and Cropping SystemsIngram &Fernandes(2000),MangingCarbon Sequestration in Soils: Concept and TerminologyWest & Post (2002), Soil Organic Carbon Sequestration Rates by Tillage and Crop Rotation: A Global Data Analysis

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Carbon Footprint & Sequestration using Cover Crops