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SOLAR POWER - University of Massachusetts Boston

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SOLAR POWER
Potential for solar
A land mass of about 100x100 miles in the Southwest U.S.-less than 0.5% of the U.S. mainland land mass, or about 25% of the area currently used for the nation's highway/roadway system-could provide as much electricity as presently consumed in the United States.Truly renewable, with a net positive energyCan be converted into electricity
Solar cells
For use at site of power useIntegration of solar energy into the electrical gridSemi-conductorAbsorb photonExcite electron into conduction bandMobile electron holesdirectional flow of electronsAn array of solar cells produce a usable quantity of direct current (DC)Store the charge that is produced
n-doped Si (electron rich) and p-doped Si (electron poor)
Types of solar cells
Wafer- based crystaline siliconMono vs. poly (less efficient, but cheaper)Thin film Si – more flexible, lighterCadmium telluride (Cd/Te) solar cell – easier to deposit/large scale productionCu/In/GaOrganic polymer cells (low cost, large scale production and flexibility, poor efficiency)Sensitized Solar cells (Grätzel cells); semi-conductor formed between photo-sensitized anode and an electrolyte
Performance
Efficiency (5-20 %)Manufacturing cost (materials and methods)Net Energy Analysis (Break even in 1-7 yrs depending on solar cell)Trade-off between efficiency and cost
Additional factors
Solar concentrators (use a large area of lenses or mirrors to focus sunlight on a small area of photovoltaic cells)400 suns300 times reduction of materialsInverters and grid integrationOne way to two way grids that communicate
Table 2.1–3 Technical Barriers in PhotovoltaicsPhotovoltaic Technical BarriersModulesA. Material Utilization & CostB. Design & PackagingC. Manufacturing ProcessesD. EfficiencyInverters & Other BOSE. Inverter Reliability & Grid IntegrationF. Energy Management SystemsG. BOS Cost & Installation EfficiencySystems Engineering & IntegrationH. Systems EngineeringI. Modularity & StandardizationJ. Building-integrated products
2015 Goal
PV-produced electricity and domestic installed PV generation capacity of 5-10 GW1000 GW/yr of electricity in USMuch more long term
Concentrating Solar Power(CSP) technologies
Large scale electricity plants in the Southwest USCSP plants produce power by first converting the sun’s energy into heat, next into mechanical power, and lastly, into electricity in a conventional generator.Thermal storage (molten salt) or hybrid natural gas system
Types
TroughDishTower8-15 cents/kWhrGoal is to get it below 5 cents/kWhr

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SOLAR POWER - University of Massachusetts Boston