Sociology Test 1 Study Guide
Ch. 1, Section 1
Ch. 1, Section 1:Vocab Words:Social Sciences: disciplines that study human social behavior or institutions and the functions of human society in a scientific manner.Sociology: the study of human society and social behaviorsocial interaction: How people relate to one another and influence each other’s behaviorsocial phenomena: observable facts or events that involve human societyThe social sciences are: anthropology, psychology, social psychology, economics, political science, historysociological perspective: a point of viewsociological imagination: The capacity to range from the most impersonal and remote topics to the most intimate features of human self and to see the relation between the two.
Ch. 1, section 2
August Comte: The first to apply the methods of physical science to the study of society, created the term sociology, founder of the subjectHarriet Martineau: Sociological studies in the US and Britain, Scholarsshould try to improve society, translated Comte’s works into EnglishHerbert Spencer: “survival of the fittest”, Applied biology to societyKarl Marx: Emphasized how conflict plays a role in social change, revolution to speed up change, development of conflict perspectiveEmile Durkheim: Society is a set of interdependent parts, each serves a specific function, sociologists should focus on social phenomena, development of functionalist perspective
Ch. 1, section 2
Max Weber: Developed the concept of the ideal type, model against which social reality can be measured, sociology should attempt to understand meanings individuals attach to their actionsJane Addams: developed Hull House, helped social work in the US take offW.E.B. DuBois: Studied the significance of race in the US, Sociologists should be involved in social reform and academic study
Ch. 1, Section 3
Functionalist Perspective: View society as a set of interrelated parts that work together to produce a stable social system.Conflict Perspective: Focuses on the forces in society which promote competition and change. Looks at how those with power exercise control over those without power.Feminist Perspective: falls under conflict, looks at how men dominate women and anything considered masculine is more highly valuedInteractionist Perspective: Focuses on how individuals interact with one another in society
Ch. 1, Section 4
The Scientific Method/ The Research Process:Define the ProblemReview the literatureForm a hypothesisChoose Research designCollect dataAnalyze the dataPresent conclusions
Ch. 1, Section 4
Causation and Correlation:Scientists and sociologists usually try to find patterns or cause and effect within events. The way they do this is by looking at variables (characteristic that differs from group to group, and can vary in quantity). There are two types of variables, independent and dependent. Independent variables are is a variable that causes change in another variable. Dependent variables are variables that are changed.The first step is to see whether a correlation exists between variables. A correlation is when a change in one variable is regularly associated with another variable
Ch. 2, Section 1
Culture is all the shared products of human groupsMaterial culture: physical objects that people create and use. Examples are clothing, cars, buildings, cooking utensilsNonmaterial culture: abstract human creations. Examples are beliefs, family patterns, rules, work practicesComponents of Culture:TechnologySymbolsLanguageValuesNorms
Ch. 2, Section 2
Cultural Universals are features common to all culturesArts and leisureBasic NeedsBeliefsCommunication and EducationFamilyGovernment and EconomyTechnologyCultural Variation is the differences between societies and groups within societies.Ethnocentrism is the belief that one’s own group is superior to all othersCultural Relativism: the belief that cultures should be judged by their own standards rather than by applying the standards of another culture
Ch. 2, Section 2
Cultural diffusion is when cultural ideas spread from one society to another.Spreading of language by people who come from other countries would be an example.
Ch. 2, Section 3
American ValuesPersonal AchievementProgress and Material ComfortWorkIndividualismEfficiency and PracticalityMorality and HumanitarianismFreedomEquality and DemocracyValues change over time. Self fulfillment is a current value. It is all about bettering one’s self. Often times, it can lead to narcissism. An example of values, in general, changing over time is how preservation of nature is highly valued. In the past, it was not.
Ch. 3, Section 1
Ascribed and Achieved status:Ascribed status is a status you inherit. It is beyond your control, things like brown eyes, your race, family heritageAchieved status: Status achieved through one’s own effort. Things like special skills, knowledge,etcMaster Status: one’s greatest role in life, shapes his or her identity.Can change over timeTeenager’s status is usually student
RolesYou play a role and occupy a statusRoles are the behaviors expected with your statusRole expectations: socially expected behaviorsRole set: groups of roles attached to a statusEach person holds more than one roleRole Conflict: when fulfilling one role and the accepted behaviors contradicts another role’s behaviorsThink of the parent/employee example.
Role StrainOccurs when one is unable to meet the expectations of a single statusThink of a student struggling to maintain good grades in all of their classes, struggling to be a studentRole ExitProcess to detach from a roleSteps:1.disillusionment with current role2. Start to search for new role3. Reach a turning point and depart from old roleThink of ex convicts.Conflict occurs with role exit because the “ex” is still expected to live up to their old behaviors.
How statuses and roles are organized to satisfy one or more of the basic needs of societyThe family: most universal institutionThe economic Institution: organized the production, consumption of goods and servicesThe political institution: the system of norms that governs theexerciseand distribution of powerEducation: the transmission of values, patterns of behaviors, certain skills and knowledgeReligion: provides a shared, collective explanation of the meaning of life
Ch, 3, Section 2
Exchange theory: People are motivated by their own self-interest in their interactions with other people. Behavior that is rewarded is repeated.Theorists believe most of social life can be explained by people attempting to maximize their rewards while minimizing costs.Weaknesses: fails to explain why people join certain organizations, counters some social norms (altruism)CompetitionWhen two or more groups oppose one anotherCornerstone of Western societiesGenerally seen as a positive thingBut can lead to stress, lack of cooperation in social relationships and conflictCooperationWhen a group works together to achieve a goalSocial process to get things done
A state of balance between cooperation and conflictThink of the motel exampleTypes of accommodationCompromiseTruceMediationArbitration
Ch. 3, Section 3
Group: set of people who interact on the basis of shared expectations and who possess some degree of common identity.Preindustrial vs. PostindustrialPreindustrial: main economic activity is food productionPostindustrial: economic emphasis is on provision of information and services rather than manufacturing.Types of Societies:Hunter-gatherPastoralHorticulturalAgricultural
Ch. 4, Section 4
Groups have four major features:They must consist of two or more peopleThere must be interaction among membersGroup members must have shared expectationsMembers must all possess some sense of common identity.
Ch. 3, Section 4Aggregatevs. socialgroupAggregate: no organization or patterns of interaction. Think of people at a Tigers gameSocial GroupTypes ofgroups: dyad, triadFactors in groups: Size, Organization, timePrimary Vs. secondary groupPrimary: Smallgroup who interacts over long period of time, think of familySecondary: group whose interaction isimpersonal,temporary in nature,classroom, factory
Reference group: A group with whom an individual aligns their attitudes and values withIn-Group/ Out GroupIn group: group a person identifies with and any group they do not is called an out groupCharacteristics of ingroups: believe they are superior, view out groups negatively, separate themselves through others through symbolsElectronic communities/social networks: how are they different from other groups? How are they similar?No sense of community like in a face to face community, in some online communities people act as they would in real lifeWhat is needed for groups to function? Goals assigning tasks, making decisions, conformityLeaders: two kinds, instrumental and expressiveNeed to perform functions such as assigning tasks, making decisions, setting goalsGroups need to have a goal. No goal, no sense in group existing
Ch. 3, Section 5
Ch. 3, Section5Weber’s Model of Bureaucracies: What it is and be able to define the 5characteristicsDivision of laborRanking of AuthorityEmployment based on formal qualificationsWritten rules and regulationsSpecific lines of promotion and advancement