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JQUERY Mobile Overview - NYU

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JQUERY Mobile Overview
Norman White
What is JQUERY Mobile?
jQuery Mobile is a touch-friendly UI framework built on jQuery Core that works across all popular mobile, tablet and desktop platforms.“jQuery Mobile is a user interface framework based on jQuery that works across all popular phones, tablet, e-reader, and desktop platforms. Built with accessibility and universal access in mind, we follow progressive enhancement and responsive web design (RWD) principles. HTML5 Markup-driven configuration makes it easy to learn, but a powerful API makes it easy to deeply customize the library.”JQUERY Mobile Introduction page
New Additions - data-rolespages and dialogs
A page in jQuery Mobile consists of an element with a data-role="page" attribute. Within the "page" container, any valid HTML markup can be used, but for typical pages in jQuery Mobile, the immediate children of a "page" aredivswith data-role="header", class="ui-content", and data-role="footer". The baseline requirement for a page is only the page wrapper to support the navigation system, the rest is optional.A page can be styled as a dialog that makes the page look like it's a modal style overlay. To give a standard page the appearance of a modal dialog, add the data-rel="dialog" attribute to the link. Transitions can also be set on dialog links.
jQuery Mobile includes an Ajax navigation system to support a rich set of animated page transitions by automatically 'hijacking' standard links and form submissions and turning them into an Ajax request. The back button is fully supported and there are features toprefetch& cache, dynamically inject, and script pages for advanced use cases.
Link and Form interception
Whenever a link is clicked or a form is submitted, that event isautomatically interceptedby theAjaxnavigationsystem and is used to issue anAjax requestbased on thehrefor form action instead of reloading the page. While the framework waits for the Ajax response, a loader overlay is displayed.Note: This is all done seamlessly by JQUERY Mobile and the user does not realize that the page is being rebuilt on the fly, possibly with content being fetched over the internet.
Page loading and transitionsEverything happens without refreshing page
When the requested page loads, jQuery Mobile parses the document for an element with the data-role="page" attribute and inserts that code into the DOM of the original page. Next, any widgets in the incoming page are enhanced to apply all the styles and behavior. The rest of the incoming page is discarded so any scripts,stylesheetsor other information will not be included. The framework will also note the title of the incoming page to update the title when the new page is transitioned into view.Now that the requested page is in the DOM and enhanced, it is animated into view with atransition.By default, the framework applies afadetransition. To set a custom transition effect, add the data-transition attribute to the link.
Content and Widgets
Inside your content container, you can add any standard HTML elements - headings, lists, paragraphs, etc. You can write your own custom styles to create custom layouts by adding an additionalstylesheetto the head after the jQuery Mobilestylesheet.jQuery Mobile includes a wide range of touch-friendly UI widgets: form elements,collapsibles, collapsible sets (accordions), popups, dialogs, responsive tables, and much more. For best performance, use the download builder to pick the components you need.
ListviewsPuts lists on steroids for easy navigation on a mobile device
jQuery Mobile includes a diverse set of commonlistviewsthat are coded as lists with a data-role="listview" added. Here is a simple linked list that has a role oflistview. We're going to make this look like an inset module by adding a data-inset="true" attribute and we add a dynamic search filter with data-filter="true" and a text field.<form><input id="filter-for-listview" data-type="search" placeholder="Type to search..."></form><uldata-role="listview" data-inset="true" data-filter="true" data-input="#filter-for-listview"><li><ahref="#">Acura</a></li><li><ahref="#">Audi</a></li><li><ahref="#">BMW</a></li><li><ahref="#">Cadillac</a></li><li><ahref="#">Ferrari</a></li></ul>
The framework contains a full set ofform elementsthat are automatically enhanced into touch-friendly styled widgets. Here's a slider made with the new HTML5 input type of range, no data-role needed. Be sure to wrap these in a form element and always properly associate a label with every form element.<form><label for="textinput-s">Text Input:</label><input name="textinput-s" id="textinput-s" placeholder="Text input" value="" data-clear-btn="true" type="text"><label for="select-native-s">Select:</label><select name="select-native-s" id="select-native-s"><option value="small">One</option><option value="medium">Two</option><option value="large">Three</option></select><label for="slider-s">Input slider:</label><input name="slider-s" id="slider-s" value="25" min="0" max="100" data-highlight="true" type="range"></form>
Responsive DesignAutomatically adapt to different devices
jQuery Mobile has always been designed to work within aresponsive web design (RWD)context and our docs and forms had a few responsive elements from the very start. All the widgets are built to be100% flexible in widthto fit easily inside any responsive layout system you choose to build.The library also includes a number of responsive widgets likeresponsive grids,reflow tablesandcolumn chooser tables, andsliding panels.
RWD Basics
RWD has three key elements:CSS media queries,used to target styles to specific device characteristics such as screen width breakpoint or resolution.A fluid grid,that specifies elements and widgets in flexible units with the goal of making them flow to fill their containers.Flexible images and media, are also sized in relative units so they re-size to fit within their containers.
RWD Allows document to automatically reformat based on size
By creating all screen elements to be fluid and flexible, it allows themedia queriesto focus primarily on controlling layout rules for containers; the modules inside simply re-size to fit their containers.A simple responsive example may be two stacked containers, each with flexible content or widgets inside. At greater widths, media queries are used to float both containers to create a two column layout to take better advantage of the wider screen.Since the content inside each container is designed to re-flow to fit its parent, the media queries can focus just on the rules for making the columns stack or float, and to override or add styles only needed at greater widths.
Progressive Enhancement(built intoJquery)
In addition to these three core RWD principles, we advocate following progressive enhancement (PE) practices. This means always starting with semantic HTML which will work on any device, thenunobtrusively layeringin advanced CSS and JS only for capable browsers. This provides a solid foundation for the device-level optimizations that RWD provides and is how the jQuery Mobile library is built.
Responsive Web Design Tips
Create a style overridestylesheetand include it after the jQuery Mobile frameworkstylesheet.This will hold all your custom styles, tweaks to the default widgets and media queries.Start by writing the styles you want to see at the narrowest screen width (i.e. "mobile first").These should be outside a media query. This mobile-first approach is efficient because you can lay down the core typography, colors and styles for mobile knowing that these tend to also be used for wider breakpoints.Choose the breakpoints based on your content, not a specific device.Since there are devices of every imaginable width, it's smarter to choose breakpoints based on how yourcontentlooks in your design system. As you re-size the window to greater widths, identify where your content hits a point where it could adapt to take advantage of a wider width.Write media queries' widths in ems, not pixels.This ensures the layout will adapt to font size changes in addition to screen widths. To calculate the width in ems, divide the target breakpoint in pixels (320px) by 16px (the default font size) to get theem-based width (20em).Use min-width breakpoints that build on top of the mobile styles.The first breakpoint applies layout adjustments on top of the standard mobile styles so these can be fairly lightweight. Additional min-width breakpoints can be added for even wider screens that each build on the previous breakpoint styles.To override framework styles only for smaller screens, use a max-width breakpoint instead.This allows you to constrain your style overrides to only apply below a certain screen width. Above this width, all the normal styles will apply so this is good for certain types of overrides.
Example of RWDbuild for mobile first
/* Start with core styles outside of a media query that apply to mobile and up *//* Global typography and design elements, stacked containers */body { font-family: Helvetica, san-serif; }H1 { color: green; }a:link {color:purple; }/* Stack the two content containers */.main,.sidebar{display:block; width:100%; }/* First breakpoint at 576px *//* Inherits mobile styles, but floats containers to make columns */@media all and (min-width: 36em){ .main { float: left; width:60%; }.sidebar { float: left; width:40%; } }/* Second breakpoint at 800px *//* Adjusts column proportions, tweaks base H1 */@media all and (min-width: 50em){ .main { width:70%; }.sidebar { width:30%; }/* You can also tweak any other styles in a breakpoint */H1 { color: blue; font-size:1.2em } }
jQuery Mobile has a robust theme framework that supports up to 26 sets of toolbar, content and button colors, called a "swatch". Just add a data-theme="b" attribute to any of the widgets on this page to turn it black.Cool party trick: add the theme swatch to the page and see how all the widgets inside the content will automatically inherit the theme.When you're ready to build a custom theme, useThemeRollerto drag and drop, then download a custom theme.
JQuery Mobile takes much of the work out of developing a layout that works on a mobile device, and also allows for web pages that automatically adapt to any device size, smartphone, tablet, desktop.Themes allow the developer to choose from a variety of User Interfaces, which they can then customize.





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JQUERY Mobile Overview - NYU