Career Guidance & Development Practices in Botswana
A little History of Botswana
582 000squarekilometersor size of FranceJust reached the 2 million mark in this year population censusThe poorest country in the world in 1966Poverty alleviated through provision of social services such as Health and EducationCareer guidance started in1963 but got structured in 1996.
12 years7 at primary school level, 3 at junior & 2 at senior secondary levelAll children encouraged to go through school. Not compulsory education but for years free basic educationCost sharing introduced mid 2000Disadvantaged children still have the government taking care of their needs, including education.
Why Guidance &Counselling
Globalisation-compete for higher learning/ further training and work opportunitiesinternationallySocial Challenges -technological changes, diseases and enhancementsubstancesDisintegration of extended family structures – Lack of role models to give appropriate guidance
The Guidance &CounsellingModel
PolicyGuidelines – Guides implementationGuidance &CounsellingCurriculum Guidelines– guides teacher at classroom levelStaffing:Senior Teacher Guidance &Counselling, coordinators in all schoolsTraining: None – PhD in Guidance & Counseling
Four areas of focus
Time Tabled to be taught in all schoolsPrimary: 30mins, once a week, teacher teaches many other subjectsSecondary: 1hour, once a week. Teacher may be teaching another subject or offering only guidance
Outside the classroom
CareerCounselling: Individual/ group/ Call centreCareer fairsOther CareerprogrammesTake a Child to Work (Primary school level)Parents are accompanied by their children to their work placesParent is beyond mum & dad, to include, siblings, relatives, guardians & teachers.All stakeholders involved in career development of learnerJob Shadowing (secondary school level)Girls in science workshops (secondary)Youth forums (career expos) both primary & secondary
NGOsTertiary Education CouncilFinancial InstitutionsUniversity – Careers &CounsellingColleges – (BOCODOL, BAISAGO,BontleleBotsogo)MediaDepartment oflabour
Successes & Challenges
SuccessesAll learners can access career guidance andcounsellingWhere G&C is effectively implemented, there are reduced cases of indiscipline & improved resultsChallengesTeacher /learner ratios (poor qualityguidance)Inappropriately trained career guidance teacher – results in tertiary students in wrong fields,Poorly prepared learners who grow to be poorly prepared adults
Successes & Challenges….
Dual roles of teacher &counsellorsWeakprofessionalization of career guidanceUncoordinated career developmentprogrammes
Advocacy forVaried & comprehensive career interventionprogrammesat primary school level (or formative years)Non formal activities (such as Take a Child to Work) but structuredEqual standing of career guidance &Counsellingas other subjectsPolitical voices/ political will.
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