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Capitalize mom, dad, grandpa, aunt, etc. only in a direct address or if it’s used as a title.Dad, GrandmaHeplerlikes it, but my mom and my Aunt Sally do not.Capitalize only courses with numbers or that are languages.I have Algebra 2, French, and social studies, but not gym.Capitalize the points of a compass only when referring to a region, not a direction.Ed is from the South, from the northeast section of the city.Capitalize all important words in a title (not articles, preps, or conjunctions unless they are the first or last words).Three of my favorite books are And Then There Were None, Into the Wild, and Of Mice and Men.
If the word is singular –add ‘sregardless of how it ends.If the words is plural and end is s –simply add ‘.If the word is plural and doesn’t end in s (called irregulars) –add ‘s.When making a compound possessive @ once, you only need to make the last possessive.
Plurals –elementary school
*To form the plural of most nouns, just add “s”*When a singular nounends in s, sh, ch, x, or z, you add “es”.*When the singular nounends in consonant –y, you change the y to “i” and add “ies”. When it’svowel -y, just add “s”.*When a singular nounends in o, you add “s” or “es”.*Formostnounsending in f or fe, change the f to “v” and add “s” or “es”.Of course there are always words that follow no pattern. We refer to these asirregulars.
PLURALS –grade level
To form the plural of acompound noun written as one word, change the last word in the compound to its plural form. Otherwise change the most important word to the plural form.For some unique Latin words, they follow a traditional Latin pattern. If a Latin wordends in a, change it to “ae”. If a wordends in us, change it toi.A lesser known rule is that apostrophes can pluralize non-words -“Non-words” refers to letters, numbers, symbols, and words that need help to pluralize.
Ex. snowmanbecomessnowmenbrother-in-lawbecomesbrothers-in-lawEx. alumnusbecomesalumnifungusbecomesfungiEx. She earned threeA’sand twoB’son her report card.I have no5’sin my phone number, but I do have a couple2’s.I get tired of seeing&’sused in place of the word and.Noif’s,and’s, orbut’sabout it, I am going to win!***In the ultra rare case, if I need to make one of these plurals possessive, still only use one apostrophe.Ex. The two ‘s circumferences were a total of 3.5 feet.
PLURALS –grade level examples
#9 essential knowledge
While the world will not end if you incorrectly capitalize algebra, you must know how to pluralize and make words possessive –knowing the difference between baby, babies, baby’s, and babies’.
#9 Background Understanding
#9 Transfer to writing (context)
Timmy asked his Mom for a few dollars to go buyTuesdays With Morriesince he loves all of MitchAlbom’sbooks.The loafs of bread were almost done baking. We will take all dozen to thechildrens’ orphanage for their food drive. We plan on donating about fiveboxenof non-perishables as well.





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