1.HumanRights Based Approach: In line with UNICEF guidelines to apply a rights-based approach to Programming (EXDIR 1998-04) disabilitySitAnsmust consider the country’s efforts towards implementing the rights of all children as outlined in the CRC, CEDAW and the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.2.Equity: For UNICEF, equity means that all children have an opportunity to survive, develop and reach their full potential without discrimination, bias or favouritism. This interpretation is consistent with the Convention on the Rights of the Child, which guarantees the fundamental rights of every child regardless of gender, race, religious beliefs, income, physical attributes, geographical location or other status. The equity-based approach in UNICEF’s programmes and policies seeks to understand and address the root causes of inequity so that all children, particularly those who suffer the worst deprivations in society, have access to education, health care, sanitation, clean water, protection and other services necessary for their survival, growth and development.3.SocialModel of Disability: In line with the Convention on the Rights of Children with Disabilities, a focus on eliminating barriers created by society or the physical environment that limit a person from enjoying their human rights should be the basis for analysis in theSitAn. This includes for example promoting positive attitudes, changing the environment to be accessible for all and providing information in a way that everyone can understand.It isdifferent from the charity or medical models of disability that view disability as a result of an individual’s impairment or medical condition that can be cured or fixed with medical attention.
4.DisabilityCommunity as Key Stakeholders: In accordance with the right to participation outlined in Article 21 of the CRPD and the slogan of the disability community “Nothing about us, without us”, people with disabilities and their families must be engaged and consulted throughout theSitAnprocess. This will promote ownership within the disability community and ensure their voices are heard in setting priorities, planning andimplementation.5.Lifecycleapproach: Disability varies across the lifespan and depending on a variety of environmental factors, therefore aSitAnmust consider the variations and implications in each of the phases of life: childhood, adolescence, adulthood and old age.6.InclusiveDevelopment Approach: To ensure the full participation of children and mothers with disabilities an inclusive development approach should be applied to theSitAn, which aims to ensure that all groups regardless of age, disability, poverty, gender, ethnicity or sexual orientation contribute to creating opportunities, share the benefits of development as well as participate in decision-making.7.Strengthendata and qualitative analysis: While data on childhood disability is limited in many countries, theSitAnis an opportunity to identify, strengthen and make recommendations for further data collection and analysis. It is also a critical opportunity to undertake new qualitative research to inform policy reform and set priorities.
1.Hasthe government signed or ratified the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, CRC and CEDAW, and if so, to what extent are they realizing the rights for children with disabilities in line with the three Conventions?2.Whatexisting social, institutional and political factors(e.g. social norms, institutional capacities at all levels of government, accountability and coordination mechanisms, policy and legal frameworks)impede or could potentially support the creation of an enabling environmentfor the realization of the rights of children with disabilities?3.Whatcapacities exist at national, sub-national and community levels to participate in analytical processesthat examine the causes and consequences of shortfalls and inequities and to what extent is the disability community involved in such efforts and with what results?4.Towhat extent are social protection measures and social budgeting inclusiveand reach children with disabilities and their families?5.Howdo you measure gaps and monitor parameters (set of indicators) while implementing the UN Convention on the Rights of people with disabilities and CRC?KAZ
6.Whichare the most deprived groups of children and parents with disabilities? What forms of deprivation and exclusion do these groups face? What are the determining factors that give rise to and perpetuate theirexclusion?7.Whatare the underlying causes of inequalitiesamong the disability community?8.Whatare the immediate, underlying and structural barriers and bottlenecksto the well-being of children with disabilities and to accessing and utilizing basic social services and other critical resources?9.Whatrisks (conflict, natural hazards, etc.) existthat are likely to affect the patterns of deprivation and exclusion, exacerbate or create barriers andbottlenecks?10.Howdo outcomes and trends differ across sub-groups(e.g. girls with disabilities, indigenous youth with disabilities)andregions?11.Whatprogramme interventions and resource mobilization and allocation options should be considered in the future, in order to address specific dimensions of inequity and pervasive vulnerabilities of children with disabilities and their families?
Key Questions for DisabilitySitAns(1)
Where there is limited information available related to the situation of children with disabilities: researchers can use participatory/qualitative approaches.In Sudan, associations of people with disability, parents, and children were the main sources of information. In resource poor countries, parents are a particularly rich source of information on gaps in service provision for their children. The process of doing the research is as important as the product itself. This process can serve as a catalyst in mobilising government and organisations of people working with disability.To ensure Government ownership, establish a steering committeecomprised of key players that should be involved in all stages of the process: Social Welfare, Health, Education, Child Council, etc.Where disability is not in the media, use the report process to share empowering images and key messages.In Sudan, communication materials complimented the research process. The CO collected human interest stories, produced aYoutubevideo, and created a webpage on disability in the country as part of the process.http://www.unicef.org/sudan/children_7482.html.
Strongbackground in disability and childrightsinclude detailed knowledge on the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, the CRC, the social model of disability and extensive personal or professional experience with the disability community.Itis also beneficial if they have experience with participatory research, particularly in countries where not much data exists.Ifcandidatesdo not have strong background in all the areas mentionedaboveAnalternative option would be to hire two consultants to work as a team.Onewould bring significant experience in conductingSitAnsand the other with a strong disability background. Ideally one of the pair would be local and the other could be international to bring an independent viewpoint. What is most critical is to ensure the disability expert has a full understanding of the social model. This was the case in Bangladesh where they hired two consultants including an international expert on child rights with experience conductingSitAnsand a national expert on the situation of children with disabilities. In the case like in Kazakhstan, where local disability consultants may be limited, they hired an international team to have an independent view on the situation in the country and consulted with local specialists on child disability while developing the methodology. In this approach extra effort has to be made to ensure the report findings have a strong disability lens.The HQ Disability Section has sampleToRsfor consultants and can help evaluate a consultant’s level of understanding about the social model.