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Unit 2_ Classical Age - AP World History

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Unit 2: Classical Age
600 B.C.E. -600 C.E.
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2.1 Development & Codification of Religious & Cultural Traditions2.2 Development of States & Empires2.3 Trans-regional networks of Comm. & Exchange
2.1 Development & Codification of Religious & Cultural Traditions
I. Codifications & developments of existing religious traditions provided a bond among people & an ethical code to live by.A. The association of monotheism with Judaism was further developed with the codification of the Hebrew Scriptures =influence of Mesopotamian cultural and legal traditions. The Assyrian, Babylonian, and Roman empires conquered various Jewish states at different points in time. These conquests contributed to the growth of Jewishdiasporiccommunities around the Mediterranean and Middle East.
2.1 Development & Codification of Religious & Cultural Traditions
B. Core beliefs outlined in the Sanskrit scriptures = basis of the Vedic religions (Hinduism) which contributed to the development of the social and political roles of a caste system & the importance of multiple manifestations of Brahma to promote teachings about reincarnation.II. New belief systems and cultural traditions emerged and spread, often asserting universal truths
2.1 Development & Codification of Religious & Cultural Traditions
A. core beliefs about desire, suffering, & search for enlightenment preached by Buddha and recorded by his followers into sutras and other scriptures were a reaction to the Vedic beliefs and rituals dominant in South Asia. Buddhism changed over time as it spread throughout Asia — first through the support of theMauryanEmperorAshoka, and then through the efforts of missionaries and merchants, and the establishment of educational institutions to promote its core teachings.
2.1 Development & Codification of Religious & Cultural Traditions
B. Confucianism’s core beliefs and writings originated in the writings and lessons of Confucius and were elaborated by key disciples who sought to promote social harmony by outlining proper rituals and social relationships for all people in China, including the rulers.C. In the majorDaoistwritings, the core belief of balance between humans and nature assumed that the Chinese political system would be altered indirectly. Daoism also influenced the development of Chinese culture.
2.1 Development & Codification of Religious & Cultural Traditions
D. Christianity, based on core beliefs about the teachings and divinity of Jesus of Nazareth as recorded by his disciples, drew on Judaism, and initially rejected Roman and Hellenistic influences. Despite initial Roman imperial hostility, Christianity spread through the efforts of missionaries and merchants through many parts of Afro-Eurasia, and eventually gained Roman imperial support by the time of Emperor Constantine
2.1 Development & Codification of Religious & Cultural Traditions
E. The core ideas in Greco-Roman philosophy and science emphasized logic, empirical observation, and the nature of political power and hierarchy.III. Belief systems affected gender roles. Buddhism and Christianity encouraged monastic life and Confucianism emphasized filial piety.IV. Other religious and cultural traditions continued parallel to the codified, written belief systems in core civilizations.
2.1 Development & Codification of Religious & Cultural Traditions
Shamanism and animism continued to shape the lives of people within and outside of core civilizations because of their daily reliance on the natural world.Ancestor veneration persisted in many regions.V. Artistic expressions, including literature and drama, architecture, and sculpture, show distinctive cultural developments.
2.2 Development of States & Empires
The number and size of key states and empires grew dramatically by imposing political unity on areas where previously there had been competing states.PersiaQin & HanGreek city-states;Phoenecia; Roman Empire
2.1 Development & Codification of Religious & Cultural Traditions
II. Empires and states developed new techniques of imperial administration based, in part, on the success of earlier political forms.In order to organize their subjects, the rulers created administrative institutions in many regions.B. Imperial governments projected military power over larger areas using a variety of techniques.Fortification/defensive wallsSupply lines
2.1 Development & Codification of Religious & Cultural Traditions
C. Much of the success of the empires rested on their promotion of trade and economic integration by building and maintaining roads and issuing currencies.III. Unique social economic dimensions developed in imperial societies in Afro-Eurasia and the Americas.A. Cities served as centers of trade, public performance of religious rituals, and political administration for states and empires.
2.1 Development & Codification of Religious & Cultural Traditions
B. The social structures of empires displayed hierarchies that included cultivators, laborers, slaves, artisans, merchants, elites, or caste groups.C. Imperial societies relied on a range of methods to maintain the production of food and provide rewards for the loyalty of the elites.D. Patriarchy continued to shape gender and family relations in all imperial societies of this period.
2.1 Development & Codification of Religious & Cultural Traditions
IV. The Roman, Han, Persian,Mauryan, and Gupta empires created political, cultural, and administrative difficulties that they could not manage, which eventually led to their decline, collapse and transformation into successor empires or states.A. Through excessive mobilization of resources, imperial governments caused environmental damage and generated social tensions and economic difficulties by concentrating too much wealth in the hands of elites.
2.1 Development & Codification of Religious & Cultural Traditions
B. External problems resulted from security issues along their frontiers, including the threat of invasions
2.3 Trans-regional networks of Comm. & Exchange
Land and water routes became the basis fortransregionaltrade, communication and exchange networks in the Eastern Hemisphere, while somewhat later separate networks connected the people and societies of the AmericasSilk RoadTrans-SaharaIndian OceanMediterranean
2.3 Trans-regional networks of Comm. & Exchange
II. New technologies facilitated long-distance communication and exchange.B. Innovations in maritime, as well as advanced knowledge of the monsoon winds, stimulated exchanges along maritime routes from E. Africa to E. AsiaIII. Alongside the trade in goods, exchange of people, technology, religious and cultural beliefs, food crops, domesticated animals and disease pathogens developed across far-flung networks of communication and exchange
2.3 Trans-regional networks of Comm. & Exchange
The spread of crops, including rice and cotton from South Asia to the Middle East, encouraged changes in farming and irrigation techniques.The spread of disease pathogens diminished urban populations and contributed to the decline of some empires.Religious and cultural traditions were transformed as they spread.Christianity, Buddhism, Hinduism

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Unit 2_ Classical Age - AP World History