Follow
Publications: 77 | Followers: 0

unwarranted-assumption

Publish on Category: Birds 0

Philosophy 200
unwarrantedassumption
Begging the Question
This isa form of circular reasoning. Question-begging premises aredistinct from their conclusions, but cannot be believed without believing the conclusion.
Begging the Question
Capital Punishment is murderMurder is wrongCapital Punishment is wrong.
Begging the Question
Capital Punishment is murderMurder is wrongCapital Punishment is wrong.This premise “begs the question” because nobody who did not already agree with the conclusion would agree to that premise.
Begging the Question
Question-begging premises make an argument useless, even if still valid (or even sound) because the whole point of an argument is to support a conclusion with things that are more acceptable.
Complex (loaded) Question
Classic example: “Have you stopped beating your wife?”Any answer implies wife-beating has taken place.
Complex (loaded) Question
Classic example: “Have you stopped beating your wife?”The best way to respond to one of these is to point out that it’s loaded and disagree with the assumption of the question.
Accident
Most generalizations have specific exceptions built in.
Accident
Most generalizations have specific exceptions built in.Consider:Traffic laws
Accident
Most generalizations have specific exceptions built in.Consider:Traffic lawsRules like “No punching”
Accident
Most generalizations have specific exceptions built in.Consider:Traffic lawsRules like “No punching”Killing people is always immoral
Accident
The fallacy of accident treats the acknowledged exception as a disproof of the general rule or else applies the generalization to the acknowledged exception as if it still applied.
Hasty/Biased Generalization
These we covered when talking about generalizationsGeneralizing from too few cases or non-representative cases are two ways of making poor generalizations.
False Dichotomy/Dilemma
Is when only two options are provided that are not actually the only options.
False Dichotomy/Dilemma
Is when only two options are provided that are not actually the only options.Pompey: “If you’re not for me, you’re against me”Caesar: “If you’re not against me, you’re for me”
False Dichotomy/Dilemma
Is when only two options are provided that are not actually the only options.“Either we continue to ban homosexuals from the military or else we’ll have to let absolutely everyone in.”
Causal Fallacies
Remember, correlation IS NOT causation, it merely indicates evidence of a possible causal relationship.
Causal Fallacies
Remember, correlation IS NOT causation, it merely indicates evidence of a possible causal relationship.Once we determine the explanation for the correlation, that explanation is the causal factor.
Causal Fallacies
Remember, correlation IS NOT causation, it merely indicates evidence of a possible causal relationship.Once we determine the explanation for the correlation, that explanation is the causal factor.Once one thing is correlated with another, there are four logical possibilities:
Causal Fallacies
Remember, correlation IS NOT causation, it merely indicates evidence of a possible causal relationship.Once we determine the explanation for the correlation, that explanation is the causal factor.Once one thing is correlated with another, there are four logical possibilities:A is the cause ofB
Causal Fallacies
Remember, correlation IS NOT causation, it merely indicates evidence of a possible causal relationship.Once we determine the explanation for the correlation, that explanation is the causal factor.Once one thing is correlated with another, there are four logical possibilities:A is the cause of BB is the cause ofA
Causal Fallacies
Remember, correlation IS NOT causation, it merely indicates evidence of a possible causal relationship.Once we determine the explanation for the correlation, that explanation is the causal factor.Once one thing is correlated with another, there are four logical possibilities:A is the cause of BB is the cause of ASome third things causesboth
Causal Fallacies
Remember, correlation IS NOT causation, it merely indicates evidence of a possible causal relationship.Once we determine the explanation for the correlation, that explanation is the causal factor.Once one thing is correlated with another, there are four logical possibilities:A is the cause of BB is the cause of ASome third things causes bothThe correlation is simply coincidence
Causal Fallacies
Remember, correlation IS NOT causation, it merely indicates evidence of a possible causal relationship.Once we determine the explanation for the correlation, that explanation is the causal factor.Once one thing is correlated with another, there are four logical possibilities:A is the cause of BB is the cause of ASome third things causes bothThe correlation is simply coincidence
Slippery Slopes
For whatever reason, many will argue that some action is a slippery slope to another action without realizing that such reasoning is fallacious.We will examine three kinds of slippery slope “arguments”.
Conceptual Slippery Slope
Ordinarily, this is perfectly acceptable reasoning, but when it argues similarity by transitivity, it has become a slippery slope argument, and a fallacy.Aseries of insignificant differences can add up to a significant difference.
Conceptual Slippery Slope
This argument relies on the vagueness inherent in language to argue that no distinction should be made between two things because they are not all that different.Ordinarily, this is perfectly acceptable reasoning, but when it argues similarity by transitivity, it has become a slippery slope argument, and a fallacy.Aseries of insignificant differences can add up to a significant difference.
Fairness Slippery Slopes
Otherwise known as a line-drawing fallacy.
Fairness Slippery Slopes
Otherwise known as a line-drawing fallacy.Where to draw a line can be a legitimately argued point, but where the argument form turns fallacious is when one argues because there is controversy on where to draw a line, no line must be drawn.
Causal Slippery Slopes
These are the most common variety.These are often called ‘snowball’ or ‘domino’ arguments.
Causal Slippery Slopes
These are the most common variety.These are often called ‘snowball’ or ‘domino’ arguments.When a clear and likely means of causation is described in each step of such an argument, it isn’t known as a slippery slope argument, but instead a chain argument (which is valid).
Causal Slippery Slopes
These are the most common variety.These are often called ‘snowball’ or ‘domino’ arguments.When a clear and likely means of causation is described in each step of such an argument, it isn’t known as a slippery slope argument, but instead a chain argument (which is valid).When causality is badly misunderstood, the argument becomes a fallacy.
Example: militarism
Consider: “If we invade Iraq, after having invaded Afghanistan, then it willonly be a matter of timebefore we invade Iran, then the rest of the middle east, and then the US will belocked intoa holy war with the entire Islamic world.”
Example: militarism
Consider: “If we invade Iraq, after having invaded Afghanistan, then it willonly be a matter of timebefore we invade Iran, then the rest of the middle east, and then the US will belocked intoa holy war with the entire Islamic world.”This argument is fallacious in that it badly misrepresents causality. It relies on previous decisions causing future ones, which is generally not the case, and also consider why the actual argument didn’t in fact happen, in spite of the antecedent conditions occuring.

0

Embed

Share

Upload

Make amazing presentation for free
unwarranted-assumption