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Unit 4_ Module 16 - public.rcas.org

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Unit 4: Module 16
1. What occurs when experiences influence our interpretation of data?
Selective attentionTransductionBottom-up processingTop-down processingSignal detectiontheoryAnswerd)Top-down processing
2. What principle states that to be perceived as different, two stimuli must differ by a minimum percentage rather than a constantamount?
Absolute thresholdDifferent thresholdSignal detection theoryPrimingWeber’s lawAnswere) Weber’s law
3. What do we call conversion of stimulus energies, sights and sounds, into neural impulses?
TransductionPerceptionPrimingSignal detection theoryThresholdAnswera) Transduction
4. Natalia is washing her hands and adjusts the faucet handle until the water feels just slightly hotter than it did before. Natalia’s adjustment until she feels a difference is an example of…
a subliminal stimulus.an absolute threshold.a difference threshold.signal detection.Weber’s law.Answerc) a difference threshold.
5.Tyshane went swimming with friends who did not want to get into the pool because the water felt cold.Tyshanejumped in and after a few minutes declared, “It was cold when I first got in, but now my body is used to it. Come on in!”Tyshane’sbody became accustomed to the water due to…
perceptual set.absolute threshold.difference threshold.selective attention.sensory adaptation.Answere) sensory adaptation.
Unit 4: Module 17
1. What do we call a mental disposition that influences or interpretation of a stimulus?
A context effectPerceptual setExtrasensory perceptionEmotionMotivationAnswerb) Perceptual set
2. Kimberly tells her brother to put on a suit on a warm summer day. Kimberly’s brother knows to put on a swimsuit instead of a business suit because of…
context.ESP.precognition.bottom-up processing.clairvoyance.Answera) context.
3. Which of the following is produced by perceptual set?
Not noticing that the songs change in a restaurantNoticing a difference in weight of a friend from one week to the nextMoving an arm quickly so that a mosquito flies awaySurprise at hearing an Oklahoma cowboy speak aBritish accentNot noticing a watch on your wrist as the day goesonAnswerd) Surprise at hearing an Oklahoma cowboy speak a British accent
Unit 4: Module 18
1. Light’s ____ is the distance from one wave peak to the next. This dimension determines the ____ we experience.
hue; wavelengthwavelength; huehue; intensitywavelength; intensityintensity;wavelengthAnswerb)wavelength; hue
2. What do we call the specialized neurons in the occipital lobe’s visual cortex that respond to particular edges, lines, angles, and movements?
RodsConesFoveaeFeature detectorsGanglioncellsAnswerd) Feature detectors
3. Which of the following explains reverse-color afterimages?
Young-Helmholtz trichromatic theoryThe blind spotHering’sopponent-process theoryFeature detectorsParallelprocessingAnswerc)Hering’sopponent-process theory
4. Your best friend decides to paint her room an extremely bright electric blue. Which of the following best fits the physical properties of the color’s light waves?
No wavelength; large amplitudeShort wavelength; large amplitudeShort wavelength; small amplitudeLong wavelength ; large amplitudeNo wavelength; smallamplitudeAnswerb) Short wavelength; large amplitude
5. What do we call the transparent, protective layer that light passes through as it enters the eye?
PupilIrisCorneaLensFoveaAnswerc) Cornea
Unit 4: Module 19
1. A teacher used distortion goggles, which shifted the wearer’s gaze 20 degrees, to demonstrate an altered perception. A student wearing the goggles instantly bumped into numerous desks and chairs while walking around, but chose to wear the goggles for a half hour. After 30 minutes, the student was able to smoothly avoid obstacles, illustrating the concept of…
perceptual constancy.visual interception.sensory restriction.perceptual constancy.binocular cues.Answera) perceptual constancy.
2. What do we call the illusion of movement that results from two or more stationary, adjacent lights blinking on and off in quick succession?
Phi phenomenonPerceptual constancyBinocular cuesRetinaldisparityDepthperceptionAnswera) Phi phenomenon
3. Bryanna and Charles are in a dancing competition. It is easy for spectators to see them against the dance floor because of…
the visual cliff.the phi phenomenon.color constancy.sensory restriction.figure-ground relationships.Answere)figure-ground relationships.
4. The view fromNarmeen’sleft eye is slightly different from the view from her right eye. This is due to which depth clue?
Retinal disparityRelative sizeLinear perspectiveRelative motionConvergenceAnswera) Retinal disparity
5. Bringing order and form to stimuli, which illustrates how the whole differs from the sum of its parts, is called…
grouping.monocular cue.binocular cue.disparity.motion.Answera) grouping.
Unit 4: Module 20
1.What type of hearing loss is due to damage to the mechanism that transmits sound waves to the cochlea?
SensorineuralWindow-relatedConductionCochlearBasilarAnswerc) Conduction
2. Pitch depends on which of the following?
Amplitude of a sound waveNumber of hair cells stimulatedStrength of nerve impulses traveling up the auditory nerveNumber of sound waves that reach the ear in a given timeDecibels of a soundwaveAnswerd) Number of sound waves that reach the ear in a given time
3. Which of the following reflects the notion that pitch is related to the number of impulses travelling up the auditory nerve in a unit of time?
Place theoryFrequency theoryVolley principleSound localizationStereophonichearingAnswerb) Frequency theory
4. The three small bones of the ear are located in the…
cochlea.outer ear.inner ear.middle ear.auditory nerve.Answerd) middle ear.
Unit 4: Module 21
1. Sensing the position and movement of individual body parts is an example of which sense?
KinestheticVestibularAuditoryUmamiOlfactoryAnswera) Kinesthetic
2. Which of the following is the best example of kinesthesia?
Awareness of the smell of freshly brewed coffeeAbility to feel pressureon your armAbility to hear a softly ticking clockAbility to calculate where a kicked soccer ball will land from the moment it leaves your footAwareness of the position of your arms when swimming thebackstrokeAnswere) Awareness of the position of your arms when swimming the backstroke
3. Which of the following is the best example of sensory interaction?
Finding that despite its delicious aroma, a weird-looking meal tastes awfulFinding that food tastes bland when you have a bad coldFinding it difficult to maintain your balance when you have an ear infectionFinding that the cold pool water doesn’t feel so cold after a whileAll of these areexamplesAnswerb)Finding that food tastes bland when you have a bad cold
4. Which of the following is most closely associated withhairlikereceptors in thesemicircular canals?
Body positionSmellHearingPainTouchAnswera) Body position
Unit 4: AP Exam Questions
1. What is the purpose of the iris?
To focus light on the retinaTo process colorTo allow light into the eyeToenable night visionTo detect specificshapesAnswerc) To allow light into the eye
2. Neurons that fire in response to specific edges, lines, angles, and movements are called what?
RodsConesGanglion cellsFeature detectorsBipolarcellsAnswerd) Feature detectors
3. Signal detection theory is most closely associated with which perception process?
VisionSensory adaptationAbsolute thresholdsSmellContexteffectsAnswerc) Absolute thresholds
4. Which of the following represents perceptual constancy?
We recognize the taste of McDonald’s food each time we eat it.In photos of people, the people almost always are perceived as figure and everything else as ground.We know that the color of a printed page has not changed as it moves from sunlight to shadow.From the time they are very young, most people can recognize the smell of a dentist’s office.The cold water in a lake doesn’t seem so cold after you have been swimming in it for a few minutes.Answerc) We know that the color of a printed page has not changed as it moves from sunlight to shadow.
5. Our tendency to see faces in clouds and other ambiguous stimuli is partly based on what perception principle?
Selective attentionESPPerceptual setShape constancyBottom-upprocessingAnswerc) Perceptual set
6. The process by which rods and cones change electromagnetic energy into neural messages is called what?
AdaptationAccommodationParallel processingTransductionPerceptualsettingAnswerd) Transduction
7. Which of the following is most likely to influence our memory of a painful event?
The overall length of the eventThe intensity of pain at the end of the eventThe reason for the painTheamount of rest you’ve had in the 24 hours preceding the eventThe specific part of the body that experiences the painAnswerb)The intensity of pain at the end of the event
8. Frequency theory relates to which element of the hearing process?
Rate at which the basilar membrane vibratesNumber of fibers in the auditory nervePoint at which the basilar membrane exhibits the most vibrationDecibel level of soundNumber of hair cells in each cochleaAnswera) Rate at which the basilar membrane vibrates
9. Which of the following best represents an absolute threshold?
A guitar player knows that his D string has just gone out of tune.A photographer can tell that the natural light available for a photograph faded slightly.Your friend amazes you by correctly identifying unlabeled glasses of Coke and Pepsi.A cook can just barely taste the salt she has added to her soup.You mom throws out the milk because she says it tastes “off.”Answerd)A cook can just barely taste the salt she has added to her soup.
10. Which of the following describes a perception process that the Gestalt psychologists would have been interested in?
Depth perception and how it allows us to survive in the worldWhy we see an object near us as closer rather than largerHow an organized whole is formed out of its component piecesWhat the smallest unitsof perception areThe similaritiesbetween shape and constancy and size constancyAnswerc) How an organized whole is formed out of its component pieces
11. Which perception process are the hammer, anvil, and stirrup involved in?
Processing intense colorsProcessing information related to our sense of balanceSupporting a structural frame to hold the eardrumTransmitting sound waves to the cochleaHolding hair cells that enable hearingAnswerd) Transmitting sound waves to the cochlea
12. Which of the following might result from disruption of your vestibular sense?
Inability to detect the position of your arm without looking at itLoss of the ability to detect bitter tastesDizziness and a loss of balanceAn inability to detect painLoss of color visionAnswerc) Dizziness and a loss of balance
13. When we go to the movies, we see smooth continuous motion rather than a series of still images because of which process?
The phi phenomenonPerceptual setStroboscopic movementRelative motionIllusory effectAnswerc) Stroboscopic movement
14. Two monocular depth cues are most responsible for our ability to know that a jet flying overhead is at an elevation of several miles. One cue is relative size. What is the other?
Relative motionRetinal disparityInterpositionLight and shadowLinear perspectiveAnswera) Relative motion
15. Which of the following phrases accurately describes top-down processing?
The entry level data captured by our various sensory systemsThe effect that our experiences and expectations have on perceptionOur tendency to scan a visual field from top to bottomOur inclination to follow a predetermined set of steps to process soundThe fact that information is processed by the higher regions of the brain before it reaches the lower brainAnswerb) The effect that our experiences and expectations have on perception

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Unit 4_ Module 16 - public.rcas.org