Follow
Publications: 88 | Followers: 0

Private International Law Sciences Po Paris Spring 2017

Publish on Category: Birds 0

PrivateInternationalLawSciences Po ParisSpring 2017
ChoiceofforumGiuditta Cordero-Moss,Ph.D.,Dr.JurisProfessor, OsloUniversity
Choiceofforum as firststep
ForumappliesitsownconflictrulesEventhoughnolawsuitiscontemplated,youhave toidentifytheforum
Sources for ChoiceofForum
CivilprocedureoftheforumInternational InstrumentsBruxellsIregulationLugano ConventionHagueConvention (EIF 2015: EU, Mexico, Singapore)Bilateraltreaties...
REGULATION (EU) No 1215/2012 OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCILof12December2012
onjurisdictionandtherecognitionandenforcementofjudgmentsincivilandcommercialmatters (recast)http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2012:351:0001:0032:En:PDF
History
1968 Brussels ConventionAmendedbyAccessionConventionsBrussels Iregulation(44/2001)Brussels I recast (1215/2012)
1988 Lugano Convention2007 Lugano Convention
Double convention
Rules on jurisdictionRules on recognition and enforcement of judgments
Rules on jurisdiction
Do not assume reciprocity with non-member statesApply in all international disputes where the defendant is domiciled in a member stateBut: employees, consumersApply in civil and commercial matters
Claimantdoesnotneedtobedomiciledin amemberstate
Article41. Subject to this Regulation, persons domiciled in a Member State shall, whatever their nationality, be sued in the courts of that Member State.Article51. Persons domiciled in a Member State may be sued in the courts of another Member State only byvirtueof the rules set out in Sections 2 to 7 of this Chapter.
Case C-281/02 (Owusu)
C-412/98 (Group-Josi)
Main rules of jurisdiction
Defendant’s forum (Art. 4)Alternative fora (Art. 7)Agreed forum (Art. 25)Special rules protecting weaker party (Section III, IV, V)Exclusive jurisdiction (Section VI)
HagueConvention On ChoiceOfCourt Agreements(Concluded30 June 2005)
https://www.hcch.net/en/instruments/conventions/full-text/?cid=98Entered into force 2015 in EU, Mexico, SingaporeUSA andUkrainedhave signed, but not ratified
Double convention
Rules on jurisdictionRules on recognition and enforcement of judgments
Main rules of jurisdiction
Thechosencourtmust inprinciplehearthecase (Art. 5)Anycourtnotchosenmust inprincipledeclinetohearthecase (Art. 6)
Lacking international conventions
Forum’s own civil procedure determines jurisdictionTwo main approaches:Wide (long arm) jurisdiction + discretion (forum nonconveniens)Clearly specified jurisdiction + obligatory application
The Yukos case: Avarietyofdecisions
European CourtofHuman RightsEnergy CharterTreatyUK-RussiaBITSpain-RussiaBITHoustoncourt...
TheFacts
Established1993 toownandcontrolanumberofstand-aloneentitiesspecialisinginoilproductionPrivatized1995-1996Taxinspection2003-2004: Yukoscarriedoutitsactivitythrough22 tradingcompaniesthatwereshamentitiestoevadetaxes.SupremeCourtconfirmstaxfraudandorderstopayRUB 572 billionMainproductioncompanyseizedand sold atauction19December2004Priceca1/3ofallegedvaluePurchaser:unknowninvestor, in turnpurchasedbystateownedcompanyYukosdeclaredinsolvent4 August2006Liquidated12November2007
Yukos’claims
No fair trialAccess to 43.000pagesfiledocumentson17May2004;hearingson21 May 2004Unlawful,arbitraryanddisproportionateSupremeCourtdisregardedtime bar andactedretroactvely;Authoritiesunyieldinglyinflexibleas tothepaceofenforcementproceedingsDiscriminatory(otherwisetoleratedpractice)Abusive(politicalmotivation)
HoustonCourt’sjurisdictionfor Yukos’insolvency?
11.12.2004:Khodorkovskiarrested14.12.2004:Subsidiaryestablishedin Houston14.12.2004: 1.000.000 USDtransferredtosubsidiary(600.000 legalfees)14.12.04: Yukos files for bankruptcy protection (chapter 11) before Houston court
Cont.
Houston court issues international restraining order pending decisionDeutsche Bank withdraws from financing of Gazprom’sbid19.12.04: Auction takes place25.2.05: Houston court dismisses caseForumconveniensNot against comityDismissal based on totality of circumstancesLack of good faithPracticability of enforcement
Possible approaches to jurisdiction
Common law
Long arm (in the case at hand: immaterial property)Forum nonconveniensDiscretionFlexible, but unpredictableMay be abused
Civil law, EU
Specific connecting factors (in the case at hand: COMI)No discretionUnflexible, but predictableMay be abused to a lesser extent (”Italian torpedo” limited by art. 31(2) Brussels I recast)

0

Embed

Share

Upload

Make amazing presentation for free
Private International Law Sciences Po Paris Spring 2017