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English settlers brought knowledge of political system to ...

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English settlers brought knowledge of political system to establishlaws, customs, practicesColonists brought three ideas:1.Orderedgovernment- created local government based on those people known inEnglandEx.(sheriff, coroner, assessor, justice of peace, grand jury)2.Limitedgovernment- each individual has certain rights that they can not takeaway; gov’t power - people should have voice on what gov’t should do or not3.Representativegovernment- gov’t serve will of people; public policies made byofficialswho are selected by voters and held accountable to them in periodicelections
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3Documents1215 -MagnaCarta“Great Charter”(King John forced to sign)Charterestablishing the principle power of monarchy is NOTabsoluteProtectingpeople’s rights like; trial by jury; due process of law; protection againstarbitrarilytaking life, liberty or property.1628-Petition of Right -Challenged Divine Right of King–Monarch must obey law of land-Limitedking’s power bynotallowingkingtoimprison political critics without trial by jury-Notrule by military during peacetimeand not have to shelter troops with consent-THIS WAS ONLY A PETITION,NOT A LIST OF DEMANDS.Kingneeded money to fight a war with France so agreed to it until he got themoney and then abusedhis authority.1689-English Bill of Rights-writtenby Parliament to prevent abuse of power by English monarchs-Monarchshad to follow the laws ofParliament-Citizenshad a right to petition to thegov’t and vote for membersofParliament-Prohibitedstanding army in peacetime except with consent ofParliament-guaranteedrights to afair & speedy trial, freedom from excessive bail, cruel and unusualpunishment.
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Three different kinds of colonies1.RoyalColony(NH, NY, NJ, VA, NC, SC, GA, MA)-subject to direct control of crown.-Kingnamed governor and a council.-Legislatureis bicameral = 2 houses-Council became Upperhouse in legislature and highest court in colony.-Lowerhouse = legislators elected by those property owners who vote sharedwithgovernor’spower = (power of the purse) tax & spending.-Lawspassed had to be approved by Governor and King2.ProprietaryColony(MD, PA, DE) - 3 colonies;PA-unicameral; MD, DE– bicameralProprietor- a person the king made a grant of land.By charter, land couldbegovernedand settled to his choosing; MD = granted to Lord Baltimore;PA, DE = William Penn; Governor appointed by proprietor.3.CharterColony- CT,RIMASS BAY =1st-selfgoverned bycolonists.-Governorselected yearly by male property owners.-Useda bicameralsystem.-Laws made are notsubject to governor’s veto or king’sapproval.-Judgesappointed bylegislature; Appeals to lawcould be taken to king
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1643 -Mass, Plymouth, New Haven, Connecticut =New EnglandConfederationformeda “league of friendship”(joining of several groups for a common purpose) todefend against American Indians; Dissolved 16841754 -Albany Plan of UnionBritish Board of Trade had meeting with 7 northern colonies to discuss colonial trade and dangers of attack by French & IndiansBenjamin Franklinproposed the ALBANY PLAN OF UNION = formation ofannual Congresswith delegates from 13 colonies.Bodywould havepower to: raise military and armed forces, make war and peace with Native Americans, regulate trade, levy tax, collect custom duties,it was agreed bydelegates butdenied by colonies and rejected byCrown.1760 -George III began to create restrictive trading acts and enforcing new taxes to support theBritish troopsin AmericaSUGAR ACT – tax on foreign-made molassesColonists objected to taxes “taxation w/o representation”Saw little need for the costly presence of British troops since French were defeated (Fr./Indian War 1754-63)Colonist refused to accept Parliament had a right to control their local affairs.
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1765 -Stamp ActParliament passed new laws; use oftax stamps on all legal documents, business agreements, newspapers; rates were severe and colonists were made b/c of “taxation w/o representation”;Delegates from 9 colonies sent reps toStamp Act Congress - NYand prepared a strongprotest.Parliamentrepealed the Stamp Act;but made new laws that were stricter.1765– 9 colonies came together and wrote theDeclaration of Rights and Grievancesto the King- protestingBritains’ colonial policies and agreed to boycott British products.1767 –Townshend Act– taxed goods that were imported into the colony from Britain such as: lead, glass, paint, paper1770- Mob violence erupted atport,boycotts of English goods. British troops in Boston fired on crowd killing 5includingCrispusAttucks, a runaway slave ?=BostonMassacre1773 Tea Actwas created to save the British East India Co. sell tea to colonist tax free which would have cut out colonial merchants out of the tea trade. Colonist protested
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1773 -Boston Tea Party-group of men disguised as Native Americans boarded 3 ships in Boston Harbor dumped East India’s tea in the waterColonist boycotted English goods1774-56delegates-1stContinental Congressmet in Philly to discuss plan ofaction. CreatedandwrotetheDeclaration of Rightstothe King- protestingBritains’colonial policies and agreed to boycott Britishproducts.1sttime colonies joined together to oppose the Parliament1774- Parliament passed more laws to punish colonist in Boston -Intolerable ActsApril 19, 1775-Revolutionhad begun-“shot heard around the world” - Battles of Lexington/ConcordMay 10, 1775 - 2nd Continental Congress met in PhillyEach 13 colonies sentrepresentatives to discuss independence.HancockchosenPresidentofCongressWashingtonappointed Commander Chief ofthe Continental ArmyThomas Jefferson took Washington’s place - VA delegate
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1775 , June– Battle of Bunker Hill; colonist defeated1775, July – Continental Congress sent the kingOlive Branch Petition =to have peace between colonist and Britain; King refused1776- Became nation’s first national gov’t - Declaration of IndependenceDescribes the basic rights on which nation wasfoundedCongress named thecommittee of five= Franklin, J. Adams, R. Sherman, R. Livingston, T.JeffersonDeclaration of Independence mostly written by Thomas JeffersonJuly4, 1776 - NH replaced royal charter with constitutiondef:Constitution- bodies of fundamental laws setting out the principles, structures, and processes of their gov’ts.1776-77 most states drafted their own constitutions
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Common Principles (Features )ofStates Constitutions1. Popular Sovereignty - gov’t exist only with consent of the governed (people hold power & are sovereign)2. Limited Gov’t3. CivilRights& liberties - sovereign people had certain rights gov’t must respect;somehad bill ofrights.4. Checks andBalances AND Separation of Powers
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Articles of Confederation( A of C ) – approved November, 1777STRUCTUREofthe Articles of Confederationis:-unicameral(1 vote for each state regardless of size or wealth)-executiveand judicial function handled by committee in Congress-Presidentof Congress chosen by legislature annually. Act as presiding officer.-Delegatesfrom each state elected annually.Strengths of the A of C- make war, peace and treaties- send and receive ambassadors- set up a money system- establish a post offices- build a navy and raise an army -(asking states for troops)- fix uniform standards of weights and measures- settle disputes among the states
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Weaknessesof theA ofC1 vote for each state regardless size- no power to tax- must borrow money from states- no power to regulate between states and foreign commerce- could not force states to obeyA ofC- 9/13 states to consent to action- Articles could be amended only with unanimous consent (all 13 colonies)- no executive to enforce acts of Congress- no national court systemObligations of the States-Pledgedto obey A of C and Acts of Congress-Stateswould provide funds & troops requested by Congress-treatcitizens of other states FAIRLY & EQUALLY-giveFULL FAITH & CREDIT to public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of everyotherState.-Statesagreed to surrender fugitives from justice to one another-allowopen travel and trade between states-responsiblefor protecting life & property and accountable for promoting generalwelfareof people.
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Problems Facing the New Nation- The Treaty of Paris wassigned.USexperienced problems:no international experienceHad to reestablish trade relations with foreign nationsdeal with financial problemsOwed money to both foreign nations and to US citizensThe states of the NEW NATION would soon prove to be “UNITED” in name onlyStates competed against each other for British favor and economic advantage(ONLYTIME STATES GOT TOGETHER was Revolutionary War b/c suited their needs.)Problemswith TradeUS goods exported to any port in the British Empire had to be carried on British shipsHurt American shipping industryUS goods that competed with British made goods were barred altogetherTo keep British production going - Brit. Merchants began flooding American markets with inexpensive goods that competed with similar goods made in the USHurt US industries and couldn’t compete with a more cheaply manufactured Brit. Good.REMEDY:Establish a tariff on British goodsWEAKNESS- Prevented Congress from imposing any taxes, including tariffs onimports. Individualstates could levy tariffs but NOT binding on other states
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Problems Financing the NationUS owed several huge debts - foreign gov’t: France, Holland, SpainCongress made requests from citizens for loansEach of the 13 states had own similar debtsCongress had issued 4 ½ million dollars in paper money called CONTINENTAL DOLLARSNo backing of money like gold created HIGH LEVELS OF INFLATION and decreasing the value of dollarStates also issued money to meet debt...15 different kinds of money circulating the country - all depreciated in valueREMEDY:pass a tax to raise revenueForce states to stop printing paper moneyWEAKNESS-nat’lgov’t had NO power to tax & NO power to enforce laws or restrictions to the states.
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Problems in Foreign RelationsUS very weak militarilyArmy disbanded due to lack of fundsNavy borrowed ships from FranceUS was weak and stronger countries took advantageBrit passed series of NAVAGATION ACTS - closed British West Indies ports, forbade importation ofN.Englandfish, levied taxes on American ships in other British portsSpain closed the Mississippi River and port of New Orleans to American Shipping.States continued to hold British citizens’ property - violation of the Treaty of ParisBritain kept troops stationed in fortsalongthe frontier to harass American settlers coming across the Appalachian Mts.US dealt with piracy of Morocco, Algiers, and LibyaREMEDIES: Raise an army to enforce lawsraise a navy to protect American shippingWEAKNESS- Congress had power to raise army but NO MONEY
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Problems with Interstate RelationsStates competed with each other economicallyGoods shipped from one state to another were often subjected to IMPORT TAXIf states couldn’t pass a tariff, its citizens would boycottStates tried to control ships traveling along border riversCourts commissioned by Congress to resolve dispute but states often chose not to follow the court’s decisionStates not meeting financial obligation and honoring Congress’ requests for fundsStates did not help pay for the national debt and ignored Congress.REMEDIES:Pass laws to control interstate tradeForce states to comply with financial and treaty obligationsWEAKNESS- 2/3 majority requirement made it difficult to pass any lawDidn’t provide Congress with any authority to enforce its laws(States didn’t have to comply with financial and treaty obligations)
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October 19, 1781 - Revolutionary war endedSigned Treaty of Paris in 1783Many economic and political problems arose after war. States taxing each other, bickering, not trusting each other, debt, no strong central gov’t, states printed own money, ECONOMIC CHAOSConsequencesof A of C- bickering among states- economic chaos-Shay’srebellion1786 -Shays Rebellion- series of armed attacks on courthouses from a group of farmers led by revolutionary war Captain Shay to prevent judges from foreclosing on their farm.Small farmers unable to pay their debts threatened with mortgage foreclosuresSome legislators were more sympathetic to debtors and adopted policies to help themRebellion- reaffirmed the belief of the delegates that new fed gov’t needed to be a stronger one.
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What were the achievements of the First National Government under theAofC?1. RevolutionaryWar was conducted under this government and it secured recognition of American independence by European governments. Negotiated a peace treaty with Britain.2.NWOrdinance 1787 -- definedNW territory- createdplan for its government- ordinanceprovidedfor 5 states (OH, IN, IL, MI, WI);Nof Ohio River andE ofMississippi River- stateswould provide education and slavery prohibited from those lands3. Increaseddemocracy and liberty for white males4. Expandedpolitical participation brought New Middle Class to power
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1786, September -Annapolis, MD- was a low turnout of representative so set up another meeting date. They wanted to -discuss problem of the A of C;May, 1787 = calledConstitutional Conventionto get together inPhiladelphia, PAto revise the A ofC12states came to revise A of C b/c amending Articles required unanimous consent===IMPOSSIBLE55delegatespledged theirSECRECYand ignoredinstructionsor revising the A of C andbegan writing Constitution(may disagree on many issues but agreed on writing constitution)
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VAPLAN-Edmond Randolph and James Madison-May 29largely the work of Madison was presented by Randolph-representation of each state in Congress in proportion to that state’s population ormoney given to support gov’t- bicameral legislation- H of R - popular election- Senate - chosen by House of Representatives from list of nominees by State reps- 3 branches- it would have all powers from A of C and make laws for states, override state law,and force states to obey national laws- Congress choose members of judicial branch andPres- National Executive and Judiciary could veto but can be overridden by two houses- Executive would have general authority to execute all national lawsVA Plan brought up 2 questions:1.What powersshould the national gov’t be given?power to tax, regulate interstate trade, raise and fund army & navyandcall on militia to enforce laws and put down insurrections.2.How much powershould the national gov’t be given?Large/Smallstates CLASHED re: proportional representation...large statesfavored, small states did not. Ex. VA would have 16 delegates and RI wouldhave1delegate.
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NEW JERSEY PLAN-maintained features of A of C -William Patterson,JUNE15thintroduced plan.- equalrepresentation of each state in Congress regardless of state’spopulation- unicameral- elected by Statelegislatives rather thanvoted by the people- Executivemore than one person chosen by Congress andremovedbymajorityrequestofStates governors- Judiciaryappointed byExecutiveTo gain ratification of the new constitution, three compromises were made:1.Great Compromise or Connecticut CompromiseForboth large & smallstates;bicameralSenate = equal representationHouse = based onpopulation2.3/5 Compromise-Should slaves be counted in the population of the southern States?- Slaveswould be counted in population (3/5 of person); forthebenefit of the South- Southmust pay taxes on thosecounted; forthebenefit of the NorthRID of this 13th Amendment - 18653.Commerce & Slave Trade Compromise- Nocongressional interference with slave trade for 20 years 1808(benefit of south)- Congresscould not tax export goods from any state- Congresshas power to regulate foreign and interstate trade
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Feelings and arguments of theFederalists and Anti-Federalistsduring the ratification process:FederalistsAnti-FederalistsJames Madison,Alexander Hamilton PatrickHenry,Samuel AdamsJohn Jay, John HancockRichardHenryLeelarge landowner, wealthy merchants,professionalsmall farmers, shopkeepers, laborersstrong central governmentstrong state governmentissues with slavetradelack of God - absence in documentholdstatesunified objected ratification processlessconcern for individualliberties wanted a Bill of Rightsindirectelections ofofficialsdirect election of officialslonger termsshorter termsnationalcurrencydenial of state to print moneyConstitutionday - written September 17, 17871789- Constitution ratified
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English settlers brought knowledge of political system to ...