Sauces Chapter 24
Sauces are thickened liquids that complement other foodsSauce making is considered one of the most challenging skills to master
The role of sauces
Can be traced back at least 2,000 years to the Roman EmpireRoman sauces were often flavored with numerous spices and fermented fish calledgarumToday sauces are thinner and are designed not to overpower, but to complement by adding a complexity and balance to the dishThey perform the following roles: improve the appearance, contribute flavors that complement or accent the flavors, add moisture to keep the dish from drying out, add richness, add visual appeal to a simple center of the plate items.
Nearly all sauces are thickened liquidsThey are traditionally thickened to a nappe consistency. Which means that it is thickened enough to coat the back of a spoon.Ways to thicken a sauce:StachRouxSlurryBeurreManieReductionPureeEgg yolkEmulsionbread
Is in the category of carbohydratesCommonly used to thicken sauces include flour, cornstarch and arrowrootWhen they are combined with hot liquid they absorb liquid in a process called gelatinization.When using starch the liquid must come to a full boil, if it doesn’t then the starches thickening abilities are not attained.
A classic starch based thickenerA mixture of equal parts flour and fat by weight that is cooked to varying degrees of doneness and used to thicken liquidsThe fat surrounds the starch granules and it distributes the starch evenly in the liquidso then the sauce will not be lumpy.Three different types of roux:White-cooked until the raw flour taste disappearsBlond- cooked until the color turns a straw colorBrown- cooked until the color turns brown
Cold roux is often added to a hot liquid to help prevent lumpsIn a professional kitchen large batches of rouxThe desired amount of roux added to a liquid depends on the desired consistency of the finishing sauce:Light sauce: 1 gal of liquid plus 8 to 10ozrouxMedium sauce: 1 gal liquid plus 12-16ozrouxThick sauce: 1 gal liquid plus 18 to 20ozroux
Is a mixture of cold liquid and starchMust be mixed well so the starch is evenly distributed in the liquid to avoid lumpsTo thicken the slurry is slowly poured into the boiling liquid while whisking constantly, slurries thicken liquids quicklyA few starches that are commonly used to make slurriesCornstarch: consists entirely of starch derived from corn it is an inexpensive and produces a glossy sauceArrowroot: a pure starch comes from a tropical root. It is expensive and produces a glossy sauceFlour: not a pure starch does not produce a glossy appearance. A slurry made with flour is called a whitewash
A mixture of softened whole butter and flourIt is used to thicken sauces and stews at the last minute.Unlike a roux the longer it is in the liquid the more pronounced the flour flavor will be.
A way to concentrate the flavor and a way to thicken saucesA reduction is accomplished by boiling a sauce to evaporate some of the waterA reduction based sauce are expensive to make since they cook for long periods of time and the volume is greatly reduced
Another way of thickening a liquid is by adding finely ground solids to themGround solids include: fruit, vegetables, seeds, and nutsA sauce made from pureed fruits or vegetables is called a coulis
Adding egg yolk to sauces takes practice because if you add a yolk directly to a hot liquid it will curdle. When they curdle the liquid and solid portions separate from each otherTo avoid curdling: egg yolks are mixed with a small amount of chilled cream before adding to a sauce.Then a small amount of the liquid is added to the egg yolks and cream to bring them up to temperature before pouring them slowly into the rest of the liquids.This technique is calledtermpering.
The yolk and cream mixture that is used to thicken liquids is called a liaisonOnce the yolk mixture is added the liquid must be cooked slowly and stirred constantly.
A mixture of fat and water that is homogeneous, or uniform throughoutProperly made emulsions will thicken a sauceMaintain the recommended temperature rangesUse natural emulsifiersAdd the fat portion slowly to the water portion
One of the oldest and most rustic ingredients used to thicken saucesToasted or untoasted bread crumbs can be added to the sauceThey do produce a pasty texture; so they are rarely used
Mother sauces and Derivative sauces
Sauces created by the French, and therefore many of the sauces have French namesThe French sauce system consists of 5 mother sauces from which a large number of derivative sauces are produced. They are the base sauce from which other sauces can be quickly madeDerivative sauce is a sauce that is made from a mother sauce, some chefs prefer to derivative sauces as compound or small saucesThe five mother sauces include:White sauce or béchamel sauceVeloute sauceBrown sauce or demi-glace sauceTomato sauceHollandaise sauce
Consist of milk thickened with a white roux and flavored with onion, bay leaf, and a small amount of nutmegClassically this sauce is called a béchamel sauce.An onion pique is when you spear the bay leaf with the cloves into the onion so that it is easily retrieved from the sauceDerivative sauces:Cheddar sauce- by adding aged cheddar cheeseCrème sauce- addition of cream and small amounts of lemon juiceSoubise- cooked with a generous amounts of sweated onionsMornay- addition of gruyere and parmesan cheeses
Is a French sauce that means velvetyIt is made by thickening a white stock with a blond roux, it should have a beige appearance.Since the principal ingredient of the sauce is stock it must be well flavored and free from any defectsDerivative sauces: are also instrumental in making soupsAllemande- addition of mushroom cooking liquid, lemon juice, egg yolk, and butterSupreme- addition of cream and butter
Is a thickened brown stockThree principal ways to make a mother sauce: the fastest type is called a jus lie, which is a reduced brown stock that is thickened with corn starch or arrowroot slurry.Espagnolesauce is made by slowly reducing brown stock, a small amount of tomato product, mirepoix and brown roux for hoursDemi glace sauce- is classically made by reducingespagnolesauce to proper nappe consistency. Brown stock is reduced until it reaches a sauce consistency and right before it is served butter is mixed in to give it a better mouth feel
Derivative sauces: has the largest family of derivative sauces, often made by combining an acidic ingredient like wine, vinegar, or fruit juice with other flavorsBordelaise: addition of red wine, shallots, black pepper, and bone marrowCharcutiereaddition of julienne of cornichon, a small acidic principal, to Robert sauceChasseur- addition of mushrooms, shallot, white wine and tomatoesMadere- addition of madeira wineRobert sauce- addition of onion, dry or Dijon mustard, and whit wineBercy- addition of shallots, white wine, and chopped parsley
Is an example of a puree thickened sauceA basic tomato sauce consists of tomatoes cooked with flavoring elements such as vegetables, herbs and even pieces of raw or cured meats.Derivative sauces: has the fewest derivative sauce, it can be varied in a couple ways by:Paprika and creamFresh herbs such as basil, parsley, and chervilPureed roasted garlicSweet red peppers andchiles
Is a hot emulsified sauce that combines egg yolks and warm clarified butter. To produce a stable emulsion the sauce must be prepared with care, if it is made improperly the emulsion will break. An emulsion breaks when the egg yolk and clarified butter separateDerivative sauces: the most famous is béarnaise sauce,Bearnaisesauce: addition of a vinegar, shallot, parsley and tarragon reductionChantilly- addition of unsweetened whipped creamChoron- addition of cooked diced tomato or tomatopuredto béarnaise sauceMaltaise- addition of blood orange juice and zest
Causes and remedies for broken hollandaise
When they start to break small droplets of fat separate from the yolk mixtureWhen it is completely broken droplets of egg yolk float in a pool of clarified butterReasons as to why they break:Butter was added too quicklyThe egg yolks weren’t cooked enoughThe butter was too cool or the egg yolks were overcooked
If too cold warm gradually over boiling water or add a small amount of hot waterIf the sauce is too hot, add a small amount of cold water or crushed iceIf the sauce is completely broken make a fresh batch of hollandaise, once the egg yolk water, and lemon juice are hot enough remove from the heat and whisk in the warm broken sauce instead of the clarified butter.Hollandaise should only be made with pasteurized eggs only and properly held since the egg isn’t fully cooked
Non traditional sauces
Includes butter sauces, salsas, relishes and chutneysButter sauce- orbeurreblanc is a delicate emulsified sauce that is composed entirely butter. It is versatile and can be flavored in different ways.Beurrenoisetteis a browned butter finished with lemon juice.
Other non traditional sauces:
Salsa- less acidic then relishes. They originate from Latin America and tend to be spicy hot due to chilies.Relishes: a combination of coarsely chopped vegetables and fruits marinated with a large amount of vinegarMoles: originate from Mexico, and are complex sauces that rely on pureeing for their texture. There are nine basic Moles from white to yellow, red or black.Pipians: are the precursor to moles, they are made throughout Mexico and are easier to prepare. They come in a variety of colors and styles.
Asian dipping sauces: are very thin and are used as a condiment for different dishes. They are often soy based and are flavored with ingredients such as mirin.Chutney: originate in India, they are similar to relishes, but use different spices. Some are cooked while some are raw.Curry: Is a broad category of sauces that are popular from India and Southwest Asia. They are complex sauces that bring together a wide range of flavors into one cohesive sauce.