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Imagine Yourself Doing This…
Go to a blank wall in a large room.Stand in front of it with your nose one inch away, and only look straight ahead.What do you see?You will see NOTHING but blankness.This is what happens while we go about our routine everyday life, seeing nothing new.Now step back several feet. What do you see?You will see a wall in time and place,not a nothingness. Your perspective onthe same world has changed.
My First Experiment
I grew up in a thoroughly racist culture here in Roanoke.I was a feral child – with no Internet or smart phones – and was too innocent to understand the ideology of racial prejudice.In time I had the opportunity to compare a strand of my northern European hair with a strand from an African lady.What do you think I discovered?What is the structural difference betweenstrands of African and European hair?Around 1915 white professors were saying in “scientific publications” that the people they called Negroes are genetically inferior to the white race, in part becauseAfrican hair strands are tightly curled.
I later learned that in Africa there are genetic albinos, just like everywhere else. However, African albinos often die before they reach age 40 – from skin cancer brought on by intense equatorial ultraviolet rays.That means dark mats of curly hair covering and thereby protecting the heads of nearly all Africans everywhere, along with dark skin – are a Darwinian evolutionary adaptation,notevidence of racial inferiority.What looked to scientists in 1915 as a sign ofinferiorgenes – looks in 2015 as a sign ofsuperiorgenes from natural selection among people living in tropical Africa.I did not at first know of this African albino mortality,so my original experimental design only resolved half of the puzzle. Nevertheless, my original design was pretty good for a five-year-old.
in human history…The first scientistswere also the first philosophersand the first astrologers
Zeno’s Arrow and Quantum Theory
Zeno of Elealived in Greece (ca. 490 BC – ca. 430 BC). He is famous for his paradoxes, such as Achilles and the Turtle. Zeno said a shot arrow at any time is motionless; but still it moves.HisParadox of the Arrowis a precursor to Werner Heisenberg’s seminal Quantum Theory statement that we can know either the position of an object, or the motion of an object; but not both position and motion at the same time.
Zeno’s arrow reaches its target. This simple fact helps establish the Quantum Atom Theory “arrow of time.” We know the arrow has a past, but not yet a future. Therefore, time is one-way, not two-ways. Zeno’s arrow reinforces the observation that the probability of an expanding Quantum particle wave function moves only forward.
Plato said philosophy begins inawe.Our birthright is to be in awe at that which is beyond mathematical understanding, and beyond language – but which we must aspire to understand, and ever labor to clothe in language.That which is within us, which is our very reality, is ever beyond us – but which we will ever yearn for and stretch out to reach. Only then can we humans become what we are meant to be “in the image of god.”This is what metaphysics, and physics, are all about.
The Tao Symbol
About 2,500 years ago what we call the Tao Symbol appeared in China. It was associated with the Taoist philosophy, and since that time many eastern religions have incorporated it. This intuitive symbol is actually a very advanced expression of astrophysics, as well as a guide to human philosophy.It applies at all levels of existence, from the incredibly tiny Planck dimension, all the way up to the Multiverse. Nobody 2,500 years ago had heard of these other dimensions. That such a symbol appeared is almost a miracle.Within its symbolism we see the interconnection of mass and energy. We see energy in mass, even at the extremes of mass; and we see mass in energy, even at the extremes. It covers both inorganic and organic matter. It also reflects the web of all substances, from quantum up to all forms of dark matter and energy.
Astrologywas the ancient world’s sky science.It explained the stars and planets for their bronze age, up until the dawn of our modern era.With the arrival of telescopes and the scientific method,metaphysical astrologywas replaced by thephysical science ofastronomy.Nevertheless,today’s astrophysics is in danger of becoming tomorrow’s metaphysics, because:We use only 3 of the 4 “fundamental” forces.Whereas the fourth unifies and explains it all.
2013 CMB data from Planck Observatory
Not Unification:Fundamental Incompatibilities
String Theorygravitonsmany dimensions
If you weigh 150 pounds on Earth, what would your mass weigh on the surface of each object below?
Our Moon 25 #Mars 56 #Jupiter 355 #Saturn 160 #Uranus 133 #Pluto 10 #The Sun 4,061 #A White Dwarf 195,000,000 #A Neutron Star 21,000,000,000,000 #
Newton’s Theory had Company…
IsaacNewtonwas the super genius of his day. There was another idea of gravity involving particles, advanced in 1690 by his junior contemporary, NicolasFatio.In 1748, GeorgesLe Sage, improved on Fatio’s idea by coming up with nearly the same theory that I thought I had discovered this year.Le Sage’s idea has been calledpush gravityorshadow gravity.His idea of gravity as a force of relative propulsion from “ultra-mundane corpuscles,” not attraction, had a mixed history. By the early 20th century it was essentially discarded by serious gravity theorists.Nevertheless, updating Le Sage’s theory allows it to remain vital as part of agraviton universe, especially since General Relativity Gravity has its own problems.
Newtonian Gravityvs.Einstein General Relativity Gravity
Einstein’s General Relativity…
was able to convert his complicated idea of what gravity reallyisfor orbiting, spinning bodies into a measure of what gravitydoes.He did this by describing observed gravitational phenomena – such as Mercury’s orbital precession – more accurately than Newton’s math. Einstein’s Mercury calculus came 56 years after the problem was identified and increasingly accurately calculated.Here is an example of the curvature of spacetime. The geodetic effect is generated by a spinning mass in orbit, creating a gravitomagnetic frame-dragging effect on spacetime.Alternatively, it could be explained much more simply as a spin effect associated with normal graviton flows. The results with both paradigms should be the same with equivalent math. The underlying paradigms however would be quite different.
Galaxy Cluster Gravitational Lens
The partial “Einstein rings” in this galaxy clusterappearto be following the spacetime geodetic created by these baryonic structures. Not seen is the cluster’s Dark Matter halo, which has as much asten timesthe observed mass. The great halo creates these visual streaks that follow the Graviton Gravity manifold.
We live in a much larger, four-dimensionalworld than did Newton in the 17th century:His gravity formula did not have any distance limits.He was working within one reference frame of modest size.His mathematical force of gravity worked instantly.He did not account for time, the fourth dimension, in his three-dimensional box.Einstein got it right. The fourth dimension of time is critical, and we don’t need more. Gravity can operate up to the speed of light, but not faster, within each frame of reference.Graviton gravity is what Einstein described, even though he thought he was talking about Lorentzian manifolds. He was instead describing “graviton low pressure manifolds.”Graviton manifolds being relative to fast moving objects, such as satellites in Earth orbit – account for key differences between Newtonian and Einsteinian gravity.
Here we have a gravity theory mess…
Isaac Newtonhad in 1687 the brilliance to describe how gravity works within one inertial frame, even though he did not understand the actual force behind gravity. Early on, he toyed with the idea of ethers, but then rejected them for unnamed mathematical forces.Nicolas Fatio, a junior contemporary of Newton, and a close personal friend, in 1690 came up with the idea of mechanical particles hitting other particles to produce gravity. Newton did not agree, because Fatio did not find the key.In 1748Georges Le Sageadvanced the key idea for shadow gravity; but critical flaws in his original model have led to its rejection. The Le Sage directional push theory does partially answer what gravity really is; but his original model has fatal flaws – and needs gravitons, without continuous structures.
(4)Einsteinmade in 1915 major advances on Newton,using the fourth dimension of time to create spacetime. However, as brilliant as General Relativity has been, this century-old model has major flaws that call for a better theory.His most serious expression of doubt came in a 1954 letter, the year before he died, to his friend Michel Besso*:"I consider it quite possible that physics cannot be based on the field concept, i.e. on continuous structures. In that case, nothing remains of my entire castle in the air, gravitation theory included, and of the rest of modern physics.”– Albert Einstein*Pais, A. 1982.Subtle is the Lord: The Science and the Life of Albert Einstein, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, p. 467.
This isNOTwhat atoms look like:
If you enlarged one atom to the size of a football stadium – its nucleus would be the size of a small marble.Its nucleus occupies only one billionth of the atom’s space.
An atom’s diameter is about 10-10meters.The core of an atom is about 10-14meters.A proton or neutron is about 10-15meters.Quarks and electrons are smaller than 10-18meters.Gravitons are as small as 10-37meters.“A proton is composed of three valence quarks: twoup quarksand onedown quark. The rest masses of these quarks are thought to contribute only about 1% of the proton's mass. The remainder of the proton mass is due to thekinetic energyof the quarks and to the energy of thegluonfields that bind the quarks together.” –“Proton,”Wikipedia.IF WE CONSIDER QUARKS TO BE THE “ATOMIC BUILDING BLOCKS” – THEN WHAT ARE THOSE MANY TRILLIONS OF GRAVITON ENERGY-MASSES DOING INSIDE EACH PROTON?
It is estimated there are about 1080hydrogenatoms in the visible universe.That would be about 1083quarks.If there are about 1019gravitons PER QUARK,then there may be 10102gravitons inside ourVISIBLE universe.If our visible matter is about 4.6%of the whole, then there are about10104gravitons inside thevisible universe (including darkmatter and dark energy).In a large multiverse the total would be much larger, providing abundant “ultra-mundane corpuscles.”
What do Gravitons Look Like?IF we could see anindividualgraviton, it might look like a 3D circular string – something small and wiggly.Free floatingandassociatedgravitons, with energy and mass, are responsible for much of the actual universe as Dark Energy and Dark Matter.Boundgravitons populate atomic and subatomic matter.Cellular architecture, starting at the graviton level, is a good example ofdialectical systemsoperating within, and building upon, each other.
String theory says the gauge particles photons, gluons, and W/Z bosons have vibrating open strings.Gravitons have vibrating closed strings.
High Frequencies and Short WavelengthsYield Great Energy
Associated Swarm Intelligence
Gravitons Exist in Three States
FreeFree gravitons constitute most of the vast flows that make up gravity for individual objects, such as the Earth, and for entire universes (DARK ENERGY). Here, kinetic energy is large, and potential energy is small. Can be expressed as particle waves.AssociatedThis is where gravitons may be loosely bound or associated with each other, as with DARK MATTER webs, or galactic halos. Energy types intermediate.BoundGravitons dialectically constitute other particles, such as neutrinos and quarks. Potential energy is maximized as mass, but kinetic energy is large within nucleons. Can display swarm intelligence.
Dark Matter webs shaping baryonic matter
Tractor Beams Attract?
Newtonian Gravityvs.Einstein General Relativity Gravity
Ethers Reconsidered
ETHERS, also known as aethers, are a persistent idea in cosmology. The ancients and medievalists accepted the concept, sometimes called quintessence. After first toying with the idea, Newton replaced ethers with “force mathematics” in 3D space, while not specifying the force. Einstein’s Special Relativity also does not depend on ethers. General Relativity is a different story.Ethers give us the unseen where there is something, or maybe nothing. They are like the water ocean in which objects move,and waves oscillate. They are a way for gravity to reach out and attract, typically with a slope.Today’s Loop Quantum Gravity theory envisions empty space filled not with ethers – but with granular, interconnected graviton loops, so that our universe is like a spring that spirals outward from our beginnings, ready to retract for repeated big crunches.
General Relativity Ether
Einstein’s aether is an integral part of GR spacetime. It constitutes the “sheet” that gets bent by nearby masses. It provides acontinuous structurefor force at some distance, and for gravity as an attractive force (within the indentations). There are pros and cons regarding his idea:(1) Because GR math is congruent with graviton shadow gravity in the everyday zones, GR can claim to be modeling geodesic spacetime.(2) The testable “proofs” of GR are carefully kept in a region between local Newtonian frames and truly great distances. Within this selected area graviton gravity can look like spacetime gravity, and the strange world of quantum dynamics is avoided.(3) Theories can either be perfect and untestable math – or they can be experimental and testable. GR tries to be both, and almost gets away with it in #s 1 and 2 above.(4) GRfailsto explain super-cluster-train gravity w/n 1 billion l.y.(5) Artistic renderings of GR show large masses somehow suspended above the spacetime ether. However, transform the art from one plane into all planes, and the moving masses are deeply imbedded in an ethereal sea, not floating over it. GR math cannot say there is no ether, when it is there in a minimal way with distortions in the spacetime metric.
Consider ONE Ball “Floating in Space”
If this ball were floating far from any obvious source of gravity, then it would appear that General Relativity gravity is not influencing it. If this ball were sufficiently removed from any spacetime indentations, then that would indeed be so.However, Graviton Gravity understands this ball (of any size) to have the same Multiverse flows as the ball anywhere else. Incoming free gravitons are equal in force from all dimensions, and there appears to be no NET force from any direction. We don’t need to complicate things with ethereal ethers and local indentations that don’t reach out very far.
WhereGeneral Relativity Gravity Fails
Everyuniversaltheory of gravitymust at leastclaimto workin all dimensions:
http://astronomy-links.net/GGvsGR.html
Le Sage vs. Einstein
By the early 20th century, Georges Le Sage’s 18th century “push gravity” was pushed aside by the calculus of Relativity.However, that victory was an illusion. Einstein spent the last decades of his life futilely trying to apply his continuous field gravity in all dimensions, including the quantum.Le Sage saw streams of tiny unseen particles (ultra-mundane corpuscles) impacting mostly empty objects from all directions, the net effect producing shadow, or push gravity. His idea was good, except for his conception of these corpuscles, and the disastrous thermodynamic consequences thereby.Interestingly, his 18th century idea of “ultra-mundane” required an omnipresent source for these particles from without the Earth. Today we call that vast particle flux source the Multiverse.
Photons and Gravitons
Newton’s First Law of Motion indicates that objects in motion will stay that way until altered by another force. There is no limit to the distance such objects can travel.For Le Sage in the 18th century, what we call today gravitons were elementary corpuscles like very tiny billiard balls. Their rectilinear motion followed the First Law.For Einstein’s General Relativity, photons were understood not as gravitons. Photons followed both the First Law of Motion and spacetime undulations. Neither photons nor any other “corpuscle” entered into his idea of gravity. Photons just flowed along curving spacetime as formed by massive bodies. Later, with string theory, gravitons and tractor beams sneaked into the picture.The stage was set for push gravity’s resurrection.
General Relativity’s Achilles Heel
General Relativity calculusapparentlyworks well in the everyday dimensions, and up to the level ofseparategalaxy groups. However, this tidy paradigm has an Achilles heel:
Masses that supposedly indent the spacetime manifold do that very locally. The spacetime sheet quickly levels out, taking away the sloping vortex into which photons enter and then emerge. This is a FATAL problem for General Relativity gravity.
A Cosmic Puzzle Explained,but Not by General Relativity
(1) Why are we moving toward parts of the Cosmic Microwave Background at some 600 kilometers/sec., and away from the opposite direction equally fast?(2) In a Big Bang expanding universe shouldn’t all directions be moving equally fast outward?
Astronomy Picture of the Day, 06/15/2014
(1) Within the nearest one billion light years (7% of our visible universe’s volume) there are several superclusters.(2) We are drawn to the region of the Norma supercluster, and tothe nearby Virgo-Centaurus-Shapley supercluster chain.(3) In comparison, we are less attracted to the Leo supercluster.
Laniakea Supercluster
In early September 2014 the results of a 40-year survey of thousands of galaxies within 500 million light years was released. Galaxies moving toward us, and those moving away were plotted. Overall universal expansion was accounted for.We belong to the newly named Laniakea Supercluster, and there is a net gravitational flow toward the mass center in the area of Norma and Centaurus, with the Shapley Supercluster in line beyond. This data refines and confirms the earlier COBE and DSS data used for this superclusters shadow gravity thesis.
Our linear “attraction” from a great distance IS easily explained by the concept of shadow gravity, within Newton’s First Law.It IS NOT explained by so-called Dark Energy, as that effect operates equally in all directions.NOR can random General Relativity local mass indentations, with vast level areas in spacetime between these dips, explain this phenomenon.The Milky Way and our Virgo supercluster are beingpushedby the Multiverse toward the CMB in the direction of Harlow Shapley’s supercluster, thanks to the shielding effect of at least ten times more Dark Matter in that direction than the visible baryonic matter we can detect.
Any theory that claims to be a “general” theory must work equally at all dimensions. You cannot pick and choose where your theory works.Here we see just six of a potentially vast number of universes, some or all of which have physical laws like ours. The closer our mass units get to the edge of our bubble, the closer they approach (and accelerate) toward the adjacent universe’s graviton-shadowing mass. This is a two-way shadowing across universal bubble boundaries. Here we see a clear, logical, and simple explanation for our universe’s DARK ENERGY.
It’s Time to Rescue the “Good Parts”of Le Sage’s Theory
What we know of astrophysics in the 21st century is way more than what Georges Le Sage knew in the 18th.He could not have known of gravitons and quantum mechanics. Nevertheless, he amazingly saw matter as more empty than whole. He saw the “ultra-mundane corpuscles” as coming in vast numbers from beyond the Earth. He had the right idea about shadow gravity.Even with all the original weaknesses of Le Sage, his shadow paradigm can be fixed by substituting gravitons for his solid corpuscles. General Relativity’s paradigm is flawed at the core, despite its beautiful math.
Criticisms of Le Sage Gravity
Because Le Sage talked about gravity itself, rather than dancing around it, cosmologists considered his ideas for almost 150 years.The lethal problem with his original idea of gravity is that the forces involved would translate so much energy/heat to the Earth,that we would burn up within one second.That was Henri Poincare’s observation.There were some other strange elements that arose to support Le Sage’s ideas, not the least of which was the idea of these corpuscles traveling at many times the speed of light.
Replacing Corpuscles with Gravitons
Gravitons are not tiny billiard balls. They are flexible, 3-D forms at the edge of both energy and matter, displaying changes in frequency as changes in energy, and obeying the equivalence principle.Importantly, when incoming free gravitons encounter trillions of gravitons within a proton or neutron, the pushing gravitonsavoid overheatingthe nucleon.Pushing gravitons energize the baryons, but not to the point of their destruction. Surplus push energy is offset by higher frequency gravitons vacating to make room for incoming lower frequency gravitons. This is similar to solar electron neutrinos being ejected to preserve the equivalence principle.Thereby, various laws of physics are honored, such as the conservation of energy and matter, while still allowing for the push effect.
More…
Unlike the hypothetical hyperluminal corpuscles, gravitons are free to go as fast as they can, but only up to the speed of light, within each inertial frame.They can also go much more slowly, as do photons in certain media. Gravitons will slow down if they just glance off nucleons, transferring some energy, rather than being absorbed. Slower gravitons are thereby candidates for becoming part of the local Dark Matter cloud, or they can continue on.In this way we see how Baryonic Matter and Dark Matter are entwined, and essentially variations of the same. Gravitons are the core constituents both of baryons, and of Dark Matter clouds and spider webs. All forms of matter thus constitute a dynamic and versatile ecosystem in which energy and matter are conserved. It is graviton gravity that mediates many of these interactions and transformations.
Gravity, as Newton said, is a function of mass and distance from centers of mass. We weigh more on dense objects than on less dense objects, given equal diameters. That too is why even adjacent nano-scale objects with low mass can have great attraction to each other with their virtually nil distance.A teaspoon of aneutron starwill have the mass of something weighing millions of tons on Earth. That’s why we would weigh so much standing there, if we could. It’s extremely dense mass, and very close centers of mass.
Looking Now at the Very Small…
Compress the neutrons in a neutron star more, and you could get ablack hole. Even that super dense object at the center of its event horizon could become compressed a lot more, if and when its gravitons are sufficiently compressed.Below that diameterwe move on down toward, butneverat,asingularity– where gravitonfrequenciesbecome so high from increasing pressures, that theirquantum push-backinitiates thechain reactionof another Big Bang.
The dimension a thousand times smaller than gravitons.
YY particles
How to See the Unseeable…Ask the right question!If gravitons are round, wiggling strings,and if photons and gluons are linear strings, thenWHAT MAKES UP THE STRINGS?
Answering this questions opens the door to the final dimension of the small.Gravitons are the smallest dimension of push gravity, and the doorway to a new form of attractive electromagnetism:Primary Electromagnetismwhere there is no polarity in the internal/adjacent charge, and which becomesSecondary Electromagnetismexpressed as polarized magnetic fieldsat levels above the graviton.
At the 10^-40 m dimensionYY particlesexist. They are spherical corpuscles shaped by their own primary EM. Classical corpuscles were incorrectly like billiard balls.YY particles are as much energy as they are matter, embodying the ancient idea ofYin and Yang.These spheres can attach to more than two other particles, since they are not bipolar. They form strings that attach to individual YY particles in the graviton’s ring.They break off from the graviton as a function of frequency change in the graviton. Higher frequency equals higher energy to “shake off” photon strings. The frequency of free photons is a function of their length. All laws of physics are honored in this dance between matter and energy.Primary EMdialectically transforms intoSecondary EMat levels larger than gravitons, as in Weak Force particles.
The Allais Gravitational Anomaly
The Allais effect, or gravitational anomaly, is named after the French Nobel laureate (in economics) who described and tried to explain changes to gravity during a solar eclipse.This brief increase has never been explained using currently popular theories of gravity, but is easily explained with a 21st century version of push gravity. In so doing, it provides a satisfactory answer – and challenges General Relativity gravity, which has no explanation.
Maurice Allais in 1954 with his paraconical pendulum
Both General Relativity’s curved space, and Le Sage’s original push gravity, give similar results during a total eclipse. Both theories seem to predict that there will be a brief andslight DECREASEin gravity in the eclipse’s full shadow.However, there is aslight gravitationalINCREASEwhen measured by pendulums moving slightly faster in the shadow.In GR, a decrease would be due to two stacked depressions in the gravitational membrane. That increases the “tractor beam” effect during a full solar eclipse, so that the new “pull away” from Earth’s “pull in” would yield lower net weight. In classical push gravity, there would be a combined blocking of incoming particles, leading to a very temporary decrease in gravity.Any theory of gravity MUST be valid at all dimensions, not just in our Solar neighborhood. General Relativity fails to explain gravitational anomalies within the half-billion light years radius. In contrast, push gravity clearly describes effects on that scale.BecauseGR is a failed gravity theory, there is left only one valid theory, if it can describe the Allais effect – and it can!
The Einstein Crossis an example of light bending when a background quasar (quasi-stellarobject) is aligned with a foreground galaxy, and especially with that galaxy’s core.This “cross” is an interesting example of a “gravitational lens.” Astronomers use gravitational lenses to see background objects that could not otherwise be detected.This unusual object indicates that there may also be four areas of dark matter near the core capturing and focusing some quasar light, making what appears to us as a cross.
There is avast flow from all directions of themultiverseof gravitons and their associated YY particles,traveling at “c” or below. Nearly all of these particles pass through our bodies in the many trillions every second. A tiny number are absorbed or deflected by baryonic matter. Net push interactions with normal/baryonic matter establish gravitational force.Some particles passing near such massive objects as planets, large moons, stars, and star clusters will be directed partially around, and thereby focused AS IF there were a boost of energy in the quasar’s light. That is the lens effect. The focused flow of primary particles (only some of which are in visible light), and most of which are gravitons, pushes harder on what is ahead. In our case, our gravity/weight tends to slightly increase, and pendulums swing slightly faster.Bottom line: Regular push gravity forces are always in effect from all directions – but the lensed invisible push effect is slightly greater than the ongoing decreased push effect from net particle flows.
It is tempting to suggest that General Relativity (GR) could explain solar eclipses as well as does Graviton Gravity (GG). However, that equality is not so. Thus dissolves the GR world view.First, GR has already been disproved by its failure to explain phenomena on a very large scale, even though in the nearby everyday world it looks like graviton gravity. Either a theory is right, or wrong, in all scales of the real world. Science moves on.Second, we can see gravitational lenses on a very large scale, but nobody has shown them working on the scale of a body as small as our Moon. Even if the Sun does exhibit this effect all the time – but the Moon cannot – then there would be no Allais effect during solar eclipses.Third, visible light has just the mass and energy to nicely form gravitational lenses. Electromagnetism at extremely high energy frequencies is much less affected by push gravity. At lower energies associated with <<c mass/energy objects in the stream, their mass is high enough to be strongly affected by push streams. We would not see these flows as lenses. We would experience them in this situation by their slight increase in our net gravity.
What have we learned from all these different ways of looking at what we often take for granted?
We now have found Carl Sagan’s“Something incredible waiting to be known.”
APPENDICES
“The four stages of acceptance:1. This is worthless nonsense.2. This is an interesting, but perverse, point of view.3. This is true, but quite unimportant.4. I always said so.”― J.B.S. Haldane(Review ofThe Truth About Death, in:Journal of Genetics1963, Vol. 58, p.464)”
What Happens to New Ideas
This quote is from a July 3, 2014National GeographicQ&A with Woods Hole oceanographer, Camrin Braun:What advice would you give to a budding explorer?“Despite extensive global connectivity and rapid dissemination of ideas, much of the world remains unexplored. Although physical occupation of a space is almost completely lost as an exploratory avenue, we still lack even basic knowledge about many seemingly common phenomena.A simple curiosity about the natural world and its inhabitants, combined with perseverance and passion for discovery can go a long way toward advancing our understanding of the world around us. Never stop asking questions and pushing boundaries because you think(or are told) something has already been explored.”

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