Learning Target: Analyze and Understand the important People and Events in Early American HistoryTaxation Activity (YummyM&Ms)Introduction PowerPoint and Discussion
No Taxation Without Representation
American RevolutionRe-enactment:No Taxationwithout Representation
When you receive your bag of M&M’s open the bag and place opened bag on desk.Do noteat your M&Ms!
How did you feel every time the ‘tax collector’ took your money?What is wrong with this system?How could you fight back against this system?Did any leaders emerge during the process?
Questions the Founders had to ask:We know we want to separate and form our own country, how do we do that?What laws should we set up?How will we enforce those laws?
Causes of American Revolution
During the mid-1700s the British and French fought a war for control of NorthAmerica.The British won the “French and Indian War”, but it was at a high cost.To help repay this debt, the British government placedtaxeson the colonists, including theStamp Act, theTea Act, and theTownsend Act.The colonists were not consulted by the British and they felt this violated their rights asEnglish citizens.
Causes of American Revolution
To show their displeasure with theseActsthe colonists came up with the slogan of :No Taxation Without RepresentationBy 1773 the colonists had begun protesting, theyboycotted(refused to buy)British goods, some dressed as Indians and dumped tea off of a British ship.Boston Tea PartyBy1775, the colonists and British soldiers exchanged shots atLexington&Concord, the first battle of the American Revolution!
Why would representation in the Parliament matter to Colonists?How did Colonists show their displeasure over violations of their rights?
Supporters of the Revolution
JohnTrumballJr.Governor of Connecticut during the war.Refused to join the BritishSuppliedWashington’stroopswith food, clothing, and weapons.John PeterMuhlenbergMinisterwho used his role in the church to recruit men for the colonial army.His group was called theBlack Regiment, after the black robes he wore.
The American Revolution
TheSecond ContinentalCongress selectedGeorge Washingtonas the Commander of the new Continental Army.
We win the American Revolution
Americans Win the Revolution
After winning the first battle at Lexington & Concord (1775), the American colonists lost many battles.Things looked grim untilAsurprise victory atSaratoga(1777),Brought theFrenchinto the warYorktown(1783), the Continental Army forced the British to surrender and the war was over.1783=United States of America
Americans Win theRevolution: Treaty of Paris
John Jay:BecameU.S. minister to Spain, helping to broker the 1783Treaty of Paristhat ended the Revolutionary War.Appointedthe Supreme Court’sfirstChief Justicein 1789 and helped shapeCourt procedures and ConstitutionallawTreatycreated the Country “United States ofAmerica”RemovedBritish control of the ColoniesGrantedthe USA certain lands that used to belong to GreatBritain
What made the American victory over Great Britain so unlikely and a surprise?What was the main effect of the Treaty of Paris?
Learning Target: Analyze and evaluate the founding documents and the values of democracyDiscuss the Declaration, Constitution and the values
The Declaration of Independence
Influences on the Declaration
JohnLockeInfluenced the writing of the Declaration of Independence with his idea of ‘unalienablerights’.Believed that government was supposed to protect an individuals’ unalienable ornatural rights.Locke stated these rights cannotbe takenfrom you without due process.
The Declaration of Independence
In 1776 the 2nd Continental Congress began discussing the idea of declaring independence from England.Thomas JeffersonAppointed to head a committee to draft a statement of independence from England.July 4, 1776, the final draft was approved:It explained why we should be free.It listed thegrievances(complaints)we had with King George III and England’s Parliament.It declared ourindependence!
Why was the idea of ‘unalienable rights’ so influential?What was the Declaration of Independence?
Signers of the Declaration
56men met in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania to sign the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776.These men acted courageouslyThe act of signing the Declaration wastreasonand was punishable by hanging.
John HancockMade his signature so large the King of England could read it without his glasses.Hancock was thePresidentof the CongressThe first Declaration only carried Hancock’s signature when it was sent to the 13 Colonies.Hancock’s name became 2ndonly to Washington's as a symbol of freedom and independence.
Signers of the Declaration
Dr. BenjaminRushKnown as the ‘Father of American Medicine’.CharlesCarrollWealthy businessmanSupportedRevolution with his own moneyDr. JohnWitherspoonChurch minister, supported independence, he was quoted as saying:“America was not only ripe for independence,it was in danger of rotting for want of it.”
What did many of the signers of the Declaration have in common?
Alexis deTocquevilleSent to America by French government to study the American prison system.WroteDemocracy in AmericaTried to identify how Americans were different from European societyObserved that Americans differed because ofsocial equalityand an overriding concern withmoney
Egalitarianismrefers toequalityin society.Europe had been built around hereditary classes which separated the nobles from the middle class and the poor.In America everyone was socially equal,(except slaves, women and Native Americans)
Tocqueville had 5 values he found important to America’s success as a constitutional republic
Europe’s Social Classes
America’s Social Classes
The availability of land and ability for anyone to own it (unheard of in Europe).
Populism:participation of thecommon peoplein government.In American society all people had the right to take part in their government.
Liberty: protection from a tyrannical (all powerful) government.Americans were devoted to ‘rule of law’ and the ‘federal system’ preventing an over-powerful government.
Individualism:The people to decide what type of groups or organizations they wished to be part of.Individuals were free to associated with everyone no matter social class
Laissez-Faire: ‘hands off’ approach by the government to oureconomy.The individual was the best judge of their own economic interests, not the government.
How are Tocqueville's values of Democracy reflected in American society?
Objective: Analyze and evaluate the important Documents written during the founding of America and be able to discuss the importance of the Constitution and Bill of Rights.Quiz: Foundations and early U.S.Discuss the Constitution and its’ Principles
ConstitutionalRepublic:A form of Government where officials are elected by the people and they mustgovern accordingto the laws of its constitution.The U.S. Constitution turns the goals stated in the Declaration into a concrete system of government.Because it can be changed, we call it a “LIVING DOCUMENT”
Constitution was NOT THE FIRST!!Originally the colonies were ruled by a ‘loose’ agreement called theArticles of Confederation.Failed: it gave too muchpowerto thestategovernments and not enough to the federal government.
1787Continental Congress:wrote U.S. ConstitutionEstablished thebasic structureof our government.Created a government in which the people hold the power, they elect their own representatives(as shown in the first three words….We the People)
What is a Constitutional Republic?What was the problem with the Articles of the Confederation?What is the purpose of the Constitution?
The Constitution is divided into3 parts.ThePreamble(introduction)explains goals of Constitution.starts with “We the People…”TheArticlesSeven Articles establish the different parts of government and thepowerandresponsibilitiesof each branch.TheAmendmentsThe changes that have been madeAll changes to the Constitution are called amendmentsFirst Ten Amendments=‘Bill of Rights’17 Amendments have been added over last 200+ years for a total of27 Amendments
Legislature (Congress) was establishedunder ArticleICongressmen are elected by the people of the USACreate ourlawsRaise or lower our taxesDeclare warSenate2 Senatorsfor each state,100 totalHouse of Representativesbasedon astatespopulation, 435 Representatives total
The Constitution set up our government with3equal branches.Legislative – Executive - Judicial
Executive–the office ofPresidentwas establishedunder Article IICommanderof the MilitarySignsbillsinto lawAppoints Supreme Courtjudges
Judicial–Supreme Courtwas established under Article III“Marbury v Madison” gave Supreme Court the power ofJudicial Review, to determine if a law follows the Constitution.Lower courts across the USA9 Justiceson the Supreme Court
What is the job if the legislative branch?How are the Senate and House formed?What is the purpose of the Supreme Court?
The Bill ofRights:
Freedom of ReligionFreedom to worship (or not) without government getting involved
The First Amendmenthas 5differentparts.
Freedom of SpeechProtects our freedom to say or write most things.You cannot be jailed for criticizing yourgovernment
Freedom of the PressNewspapers, radio, television, or the internet can write or publish what they want, without fear of punishment.People need a free press in a democracy to be informed voters!
Freedom of AssemblyThe right to peacefully assemble togetherFreedom to PetitionYou have the right to write to government officials about lawsand complaints.
2nd-Right to Bear ArmsPeople have a right to ‘bear arms’.Necessary for the protection of the state3rd-Prohibits Quartering of SoldiersDuring Revolution the King placed troops in homes of civilians at the homeowners expense.This prevents the government from placing soldiers in a civilian’s home.
The Bill ofRights:
The 4th, 5th, 6thand 8thAmendments prohibits government officials from taking away a person’s life, liberty or property without following certain fair and reasonable procedures.
The Bill ofRights:
4th–No Unreasonable SearchesColonists were smuggling products so as not to pay theBritishtaxesBritishgovernment officials would randomly search a colonistsproperty looking for smuggled goods.Now a judge has to sign a ‘search warrant’ before your property can be legally searched
Eminent Domaingives government the right to take private property for public use, but they must give you faircompensation(payment) for the property.Double Jeopardycannot be tried for the same crime twice.Grand Juryis required to issue an indictment before you can be tried for a serious crime.Self-Incriminationcannot be forced to testify against yourself.Supreme Courtruling ofMiranda v. Arizonasays you must be informed of your rights or what you say cannot be used.
The Bill ofRights:
5th- A person cannot be deprived of life, liberty, or property without “due process of law”.Certain legal procedures must be carried out before a person can be punished.
6thFair and Impartial TrialMust be told of charges against themRight to a trial by jury and be represented by a lawyer8thNo Cruel or Unusual PunishmentNo high bailPunishment must fit the crimeNo cruel punishments and no torture
The Bill ofRights:
9thAmendmentJust because the Constitution doesn’t list a right doesn’t mean we don’t have it.thepeople have all rightsnot specifically given to the government.10thAmendmentThe federal government has only those powers specifically given to it in the Constitution.All other powers are reserved for the states or the people!
The Bill ofRights:
Attempt to limit the powers of the government
What is the purpose of the Bill of Rights?How do the Bill of Rights grant freedom and liberty to Americans?Out of the 5 freedoms of the 1stAmendment, which do you believe is the most important and why?
Federalism– power isdividedbetween thenationalgovernment and thestates.Some powers for the national government, some only for the states and some are sharedLimited Government– powers are limited by theConstitution.King John signed Magna Carta in 1215 limiting the powers of the ruler.Individual Rights– Bill of Rights lists specific liberties (freedoms) to ensure thatall US citizenshaveprotectedrights.
Popular Sovereignty– the people hold the power and give the government its power.We consent to be governed.Republicanism-The Constitution requires that political leaders must beelectedon a regular basis.This is called:Representative Democracy.Checks and Balances– prevents any one branch from becoming too powerful, each branch can stop or ‘check’ the other two.Separation of Powers– federal government is divided into three separate branches.
Articles 1, 2, & 3
Bill of Rights
1stRAPPS2ndBear Arms3rdQuartering Soldiers4thSearch & Seizure5thDue Process6thSpeedy Trial7thTrial by Jury8thCruel & Unusual Punishment
10thRights of the States
9thRights of the People
Separation of Powers
Checks and Balances
Federalism: The sharing of power between different levels of governments (National, State, Local)Limited Government: The Constitution limits power, power shared between state and localIndividual Rights: Bill of rightsPopular Sovereignty: Voting is the way to ensure rule by the people.Republicanism: The Constitution requires that political leaders must be elected on a regular basis.Checks and Balances: Each branch of government can limit, or check, the powers of the other twoSeparation of Powers: Powers divided between 3 branches; no branch can gain too much power.
How are the Principles reflected in the Constitution?How are the Values of Democracy reflected in the Principles?Which Principle do you believe is the most important and why?
Objective: Analyze the Civil War andtrace the historical development of Civil Rights since the 19thcentury, including the 13th, 14th, 15thamendmentsWarm-upDiscuss the Civil War: Why was there a war? And civil rights
19thCentury America(1830s – 1865)
During the 1800s (19thcentury) theIndustrial Revolutionintroduced the factory system and output of products soared.Manufacturing, especially in the North, became the primary source of income.The South also experienced growth in manufacturing, but was much more centered around agricultureThe West had fewer factories than the North or South.
During the mid-1800s the USA had a hugepopulation growth.The North experienced this growth as people came looking forworkin the factories.While the South remaineddependentonslave labor, with 1/3 of the population of the South as slaves.The West would soon change as the idea ofManifest Destinywould lead settlers into the frontier.
What was unique about each region in America during the 19thCentury?In what way did the Industrial Revolution affect America?In what way did Manifest Destiny affect America?
Thearguments over slavery and the growth of industry, and social changes wouldeventually led to a Civil War.Southerners were fearful that the North would restrict slavery from the West and eventually abolish slaverysomething they depended on to produce their #1 crop of cotton.Southern states believed they had the right to say no tolawsthey disliked.
The Civil War(1861-1865)
Timeline of Civil War –1861:the war starts as South attacks North at Ft. Sumter, SC1863:Emancipation Proclamation issued by Lincoln freeing slaves in Confederate states.1863:Battle of Gettysburg and Lincoln gives Gettysburg Address.1865:South surrender to North at Appomattox Courthouse in VA.1865: Lincoln assassinated 5 days after Civil War ends
In 1861, theSouthwouldsecedeand declare themselves the Confederate States of AmericaThe Confederacy attacked a Union fort calledFt. Sumterin South Carolina.The South electedJefferson Davisas theirPresident, but the leader of the Confederate Army was Gen.Robert E. Lee.
PresidentAbraham LincolnHadthe advantage of greaterindustrial resourcesand a largerpopulation, partly from immigration.At the beginning of the war:Lincoln’s plan was topreserveor keep theUnionunited as1nation.Lincoln issues theEmancipation ProclamationFreed the slaves in the rebelling Confederate states, this changed purpose of war to ending slavery.
Battle of Gettysburg(1863)Bloodiest battle ever on USA’s soil50,000 casualties in 3 daysEndedthe South’s chances of victory.Gettysburg Address(1863)Lincoln’s speech to honor the deadTook just 2 minutes and became the most famous speech in American history.Supported idea ofequalityas stated in Declaration of Independence.Explained the Civil War was struggle to preserve the Union(the USA)Claimed anew birth of freedomto bring equality to all of USA’s citizens.
‘ --- that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom – and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.’- refers to theUnited StatesConstitution
TheCivil War and Civil Rights
13thAmendmentAbolished slavery,: 9 million people were now freeMany Southerners didn’t agree with this.14thAmendmentAll citizens haveequal protection under the law.The South attempted to limit the rights of these newly freed slaves with laws called black codes (Jim Crow laws).Idea of ‘separate but equal’ was established15thAmendmentMade it illegal to deny a person suffrage or (right to vote) based on their race.Gave former male slaves theright to vote.
Following the Civil Warthree Constitutional Amendmentswere written to protect individual rights and liberties
America After the Civil War
TheFederalgovernment secured its’supremacyover the state governments“E Pluribus Unum”, which means ‘from many comes one’ became the statement of American unity and part of our official seal
“In God We Trust” became our national mottohas been used on our money since 1864.Our national anthem theStar Spangled Bannerhas been used since 1931
How did the Civil Rights Amendments change America society?