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The Civil War (USHC 3.2) - tomrichey.net

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The CivilWar
US HISTORYEOC REVIEW
USHC 3.2
Summarize the course of the Civil War and its impact ondemocracy,includingthe majorturning points; the impact of the EmancipationProclamation; the unequalTreatment affordedto African American military units; the geographic, economic,andpoliticalfactors in thedefeat of the Confederacy; and theultimate defeatof theideaof secession.
Election of 1860
“A House divided against itself cannot stand.”-- Abraham Lincoln
Indian Territory(CSA)
The “Deep South” seceded after Lincoln was elected.
Secession
The “Upper South” waited…
DOCUMENT
Causes ofSouthern Secession
Conflicting views aboutfederalauthority and states’ rightsEconomic and cultural differences between theagriculturalSouth and theindustrializingNorthDebates over the expansion ofslaveryinto the western territoriesThe election ofAbraham Lincolnin 1860
Confederate States of America
(CSA)
First National Flag of the CSA
1861-1865
War-making Capacityof theNorthandSouth
Confederate Advantages
More Competent GeneralsSouthern Military Tradition“Home Field Advantage”DEFENSE as objectiveNOT conquestHIGH STAKESSurvivalas objective
The “Anaconda Plan”
General Winfield Scott(1860)
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2
3
NavalBlockade
Capture Richmond
Control the Miss. R.
Decisive Battlesofthe CivilWar
Antietam
Lee and McClellan fought to a tactical draw in thebloodiest single dayof the war.Afterwards,Lee retreated to VA.STRATEGIC VICTORYfor the Union
September, 1862
The Emancipation Proclamation
"That on the first day of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-three,all persons held as slaves within any State or designated part of a State, the people whereof shall then be in rebellion against the United States, shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free….“Now, therefore I, Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States, by virtue of the power in me vested asCommander-in-Chief, of the Army and Navy of the United States in time of actual armed rebellion against the authority and government of the United States, and as a fit andnecessary war measurefor suppressing said rebellion…”
1/1/1863
DOCUMENT
Areas affectedAreas specifically exempted
The Emancipation Proclamation
WHY, THEN?
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Lincoln’s #1 War Aim
Preserve the UnionAll other goals were secondaryEmancipation a goalIN ADDITION
1863
Decisive Engagements

Lee
In 1863, Lee won his greatest victory and suffered his greatest defeat.
Conscription
aka, “The Draft”
“Rich man’s war, poor man’s fight.”-- Anti-draft slogan
After his victory at Chancellorsville, Lee invaded Pennsylvania in hopes of gaining a decisive victory on Northern soil.
Gettysburg
July 1-3, 1863
Gettysburg
July 1-3, 1863
After three days of fighting, Lee failed to defeat the Union Army.LEE’S FIRSTTACTICAL DEFEAT
Grant
Siege of Vicksburg
May 18 – July 4, 1863
A Turning Point...
The back-to-back losses at Gettysburg and Vicksburg were severe blows to the Confederacy.What effect did these battles have on the Copperhead movement in the North?
The Gettysburg AddressNovember 19, 1863
RHETORIC
African-Americans
About180,000African-Americans enlisted in the Union Army in the later years of the war.10% of Union Army / 1% of Population
ALL VOLUNTEEROnly whites were drafted in the North.
in the Civil War
54thMassachusetts Volunteer Infantry
The film,Glory(1989), is based on the story of the 54thMassachusetts Volunteer Infantry.
The Old Flag Never Touched the Ground, which depicts the 54th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry Regiment at the attack on Fort Wagner, South Carolina, on July 18, 1863.
1856
1860
1864
Election of 1864
Four More Years!
TOTAL WAR
After defeating McClellan, Lincoln was no longer bound by political considerations.
Lincoln
Grant
Sherman
Lee vs.Grant
WAR OF ATTRITION
Virginia1864-1865
Gen. William T. Sherman (USA)
Sherman’s March
1864-1865
Sherman’s March
1864-1865
Lincoln’s SecondInaugural Address
Compare to First Inaugural
March 4,1865
Lee Surrenders to Grant
Appomattox Court House
April 12, 1865
Richmond, 1865

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The Civil War (USHC 3.2) - tomrichey.net