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Civil War Begins 11.1AOLV

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The Civil War, 1861 – 1865Chapter 11
Section 1: The Civil War BeginsMitten– CSHSSemester One
1861 to 1865
The Civil WarBloody Civil WarUnion devastates the SouthConfederacy is defeatedLincoln wins reelectionassassinated as the war ends
Fort Sumter
Confederates soldiers take over government, military installationsFort Sumter – Union outpost in Charleston harborLincoln’s dilemmareinforcing fort or not?reinforcing – rest of slave states secedeevacuating legitimizes Confederacy
First Shots
Lincoln does not reinforce or evacuatesends food to the fortJefferson Davis choosesturns peaceful secession into war - fires on Sumter April 12th, 1861
First Shots
Virginia SecedesFall of Fort Sumter unites Northvolunteers rush to enlistVirginia unwilling to fight Southsecedes from Unionantislavery western counties secede from VirginiaThree more states secedeborder states remain in Union
Americans Expect a Short War
Union Advantagesmore soldiersmore factoriesmore foodmore railroadsConfederate Advantagescotton profits = $$better military leadership – generalsmotivated!
Union Strategy
Union = Anaconda Planblockade Southern portsdivide Confederacy into two in westcapture Richmond, Confederate capitalConfederate Strategygood defenseinvade North if opportunity arises
First Battle
Bull Runnear Washington D.C. - Confederate victoryProtecting Washington D.C.After Bull Run, Lincoln wants 1 million more soldiersGeorge McClellan to lead Army of the Potomac
Early Battles
Forts Henry & DonelsonGeneral Ulysses S. Grantbrave, tough, decisive commander in WestFeb. 1862, Grant captures Confederate Forts Henry, Donelson
Union Armies in the West
ShilohMarch 1862, Confederate troop surprise Union soldiers at ShilohGrant counterattacksConfederates retreatthousands dead, woundedFarragut on the Lower MississippiDavid G. Farragut commands fleettakes New Orleans, April 1862
Revolution in Warfare
IroncladsNew ironclad ships instrumental in victories of Grant, FarragutIronclads splinter wooden shipswithstand cannon, burningMarch 1862, North’sMonitor, South’sMerrimack (CSS Virginia)fight to a draw
New Weapons
Rifles more accuratefaster loadingfires more rounds than musketsMinie ball– more destructive bulletgrenades & land mines are usedFighting from trenchesbarricades new advantage in attacks
War for the Capitals
“On to Richmond”McClellan waits to attack Richmonddrills troops for 5 monthsSpring 1862, Robert E. Lee takes command of Southern armyLee, McClellan fight Seven Days’ BattleUnion leaves Richmond area
Antietam
Lee wins Second Battle of Bull Runmarches into MarylandLee, McClellan clash atAntietambloodiest single-day battleBattle a standoffConfederates retreatMcClellan does not pursueLincoln fires McClellan

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Civil War Begins 11.1AOLV