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Architectural Design
Copyright Texas Education Agency (TEA)
Residential Design Criteria
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Codes, Zoning and Restrictions
Copyright Texas Education Agency (TEA)
City Building CodesIBC(International Building Code),IRC(International Residential Code)These codes are written by an international foundation of architects and engineers.They set forth standards for safe uniform construction.Most cities, especially small cities who do not have architects on staff, adopt these codes as the basis for their city code.Larger cities who adopt these codes may add to or expand the codes to set forth more rigid building standards.
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Codes, Zoning and Restrictions
Copyright Texas Education Agency (TEA)
City Building CodesFHA (Federal Housing Authority)Most builders use this code in addition to the city code to insure the structure meets the requirements needed for the buyer to secure a government guaranteed (FHA) loan.
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Codes, Zoning and Restrictions
Copyright Texas Education Agency (TEA)
City Building CodesGraphic and Design StandardsThese standards help designers put forth a set of plans which can be read and understood by contractors and builders.1) AIA (American Institute of Architects)2) Planning and Design Standard
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Codes, Zoning and Restrictions
Copyright Texas Education Agency (TEA)
City Land Use ZonesCityZoning OrdinanceMost incorporated cities have areas of the city set aside for specific use. This aids in regulated growth while protecting the property values.The zones specify what land uses are acceptable. There are specific “zones” which can be used for residential construction while other land may be zoned for apartment, retail, commercial, light industrial, etc.Land owners must comply with the zoning laws but may petition the city to change the land use zone.
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Codes, Zoning and Restrictions
Copyright Texas Education Agency (TEA)
City Land Use ZonesUniform Building Code (UBC)The Uniform Building Code specifies the specific type of buildings which can be constructed in each zone.Cities usually adhere to the definitions and specifications set forth in the UBC for special use zones within the city.
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Codes, Zoning and Restrictions
Copyright Texas Education Agency (TEA)
RestrictionsDeed RestrictionsWhen a parcel of land is sold, the seller may stipulate certain restrictions for land use. This is especially true in residential developments within the city.Deed restrictions vary from the minimum size structure which can be built, to the type of fences which may or may not be constructed.Deed restrictions are legal and binding on the purchaser of the land as long as they are in compliance with applicable laws.
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Codes, Zoning and Restrictions
Copyright Texas Education Agency (TEA)
RestrictionsEasementsEasements dedicate the use and access of the land or parts of the land to someone other than the land owner.Easements may be dedicated to drainage, utilities or other rights of access and restrictions.The owner or leaser of the easement has full right of access to the dedicated area.
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Codes, Zoning and Restrictions
Copyright Texas Education Agency (TEA)
RestrictionsRight of WayMost right of ways are owned by cities, counties or the state. Right of ways are designated for streets and alley ways and other public access.The right of way for a street may allow for expansion of the street at some future date.If the governing authority needs more land for a ROW, it can condemn land for that use. The property owner must relinquish or sell the condemned land to the governing authority.Right of ways cannot be encroached on by the adjacent property owner.
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Codes, Zoning and Restrictions
Copyright Texas Education Agency (TEA)
RestrictionsManufacturer’s SpecificationsManufacturers of building appliances and fixtures specify the space required for installation and safe operation of their product.It is the builder's responsibility to provide the recommended space.Manufacturer’s recommended space requirementsThe size and requirements for safe operation of a product are specified by the manufacturer.
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Codes, Zoning and Restrictions
Copyright Texas Education Agency (TEA)
RestrictionsManufacturer’s SpecificationsAvailability of custom sizesSome manufacturers will build products to a custom size.This increases the cost of construction; however, for certain design considerations this may be an acceptable feature.Bathrooms are areas where custom fixtures are often used.Standard physical sizesMost manufacturers build their product in accordance with standard sizes.Most fixtures and appliances may be interchanged with similar products from various manufacturers.
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Personal Preferences
Copyright Texas Education Agency (TEA)
Preference of the CustomerPersonal preferenceHome buyers usually have a preference in how their house looks and how the rooms are arranged.The homes they have lived in before help create this sense of preference
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Personal Preferences
Copyright Texas Education Agency (TEA)
Preference of the CustomerFamily requirementsFamily sizeThe number and age of the family members influence the rooms needed by a particular family.Families with small children usually require less space than families with older children.Family work professionsThe occupation of family members may influence the type of rooms needed.Professional occupations often require computer and work rooms and formal entertainment facilities while trade occupations may require less formal family/TV rooms.
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Personal Preference
Copyright Texas Education Agency (TEA)
Preference of the DesignerPrevious ExperienceAn experienced designer will have insights which the less experienced may not have.As a designer gains experience, he also gains in knowledge of what works with different architectural styles and different types of home buyers.
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Personal Preference
Copyright Texas Education Agency (TEA)
Preference of the DesignerKnowledge and skillsGood design always follows the principles of balance, rhythm and harmony.Features from one style of architectural may not blend well with other styles.Some styles mandate certain room arrangements.A good designer will avoid mixing elements of incompatible styles.
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Personal Preference
Copyright Texas Education Agency (TEA)
Preference of the BuilderConstruction MethodsHomebuilders are noted for their particular method and level of trim (finishing out the house).Door types, wall and floor treatment and type and quality of fixtures and appliances play an important part in the overall quality of the house.Preferred Materials and VendorsThe brand of finishing material (paint, texture, plumbing fixtures and appliances) used by the builder add character and quality to the house.
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