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Mood (Affective) Disorders - Jenks Public Schools

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Mood (Affective) Disorders
Marion WeeksJenks High School
This category of mental disorders has significant and chronic disruption in mood as the predominant symptom.Thiscauses impaired cognitive, behavioral, and physicalfunctioning.Mooddisorders are differentiated from normal moods on the basis of duration, intensity, and absence of cause.Forexample, two weeks of continued symptoms with high levels of intensity and with no precipitating cause indicates a major depressive episode.
Mood Disorders in general
Prevalence of mood disorders1.Mood disorders are among the most common of all psychological disorders, affecting about 12 million Americans in any given year.2.Mood disorders are more common in women than in men.3.The greatest risk of developing major depression occurs between the ages of 15- 24 and 35-44.4.Episodes recur in one half of all cases and last at least two weeks.
Mood Disorders in general
Most common is depression.Depression is the number 1 reason people seek mental healthservices.Mild depression (as we all experience occasionally) is adaptive – when times are tough, depression slows us down, avoids attracting predators, forces us to reassess our lives, and evokes support.Depression is considered a mental illness when it ceases to be adaptive -- when the behavior interferes with our survival.
Mood Disorders in general
Depressiontends to be self-sustainingWomen are twice as likely to report depression than men.Stressful events often precededepressionRates of depression have increased with each generation (not just in America)
Facts About Depression
Depression strikes at younger age now than in previous generations (not just in America)Indication is that increase is real, and not just that people are more likely to report depression than before.Young adults (18-24) are at the highest risk for developing depression, particularly those who have been depressed before.Ironically, few people commit suicide in the midst of depression because they lack initiative and energy.Suicide risk is highest when people first startto recover.
Facts About Depression
Emotionalsymptoms involve feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and guilt. They also involve feeling emotionally disconnected from other people.Behavioralsymptoms include a dejected, unsmiling, downcast demeanor; slowed movements and speech; tearfulness and spontaneous crying; and a loss of interest or pleasure in one's usual activities, including sex and eating.Cognitivesymptoms involve difficulty thinking, concentrating, and remembering; global negativity and pessimism; and suicidal thoughts or preoccupation with death.Physicalsymptoms include changes in appetite resulting in weight gain or loss; constipation; sleep disturbances, such as insomnia, oversleeping, or early waking; chronic, vague aches and pains; and loss of energy, or restless, fidgety activity.
MajorDepression
Signsof depression (feelings of worthlessness, loss of interest in family, friends, and activities, lethargy, change in eating patterns, thoughts of death, inability to concentrate, sense of hopelessness, dissatisfaction with your life) last 2 weeks or more.Usually goes away (even without treatment, although treatment can speed up recovery) in under 6 months
Major Depressive Disorder
Dysthymic disorderAlong-term, low-level depression;notdebilitatingCharacterizedby low self-esteem and a sense of hopeless all day almost every day for at least twoyears.Peoplewithdysthymiamay also experience low energy, indecisiveness, insomnia or excessive sleeping, and a change in appetite.Involveschronic, low-grade feelings of depression that produce subjective discomfort but, unlike major depression, does not seriously impair one's ability to function.
Other depressed mood disorders
Alternatingepisodes of major depression and mania.Behaviorsassociated withmanic episode– excessively talkative,over reactive,elated, irritable, little need for sleep, often say their minds are “racing” and jump around from subject to subject when talking, easily distracted, fewer sexualinhibitions.VERYhigh self-esteem and optimism leads to poor judgment (spending a lot of money on a shopping spree, taking unnecessary risks)
Bipolar disorder
Occurs in less than 1% ofpopulationOccasionally associated with psychosis (such as hallucinations and delusions); severe forms like these are occasionally misdiagnosed asschizophrenia
Bipolar disorder
1.Emotional symptoms, such as euphoria, expansiveness, and excitement (feeling "on top of the world").2.Behavioral symptoms, such as out-of-character energy or activity, frenzied, disorganized goal-directed activity, rapid-fire speech, spending sprees and illegal acts, and severely disrupted sleep patterns often resulting in little or no sleep over a number of days.3.Cognitive symptoms, such as wildly inflated self-esteem, grandiosity (sometimes involving delusional beliefs), easy distractibility leading to a flight of ideas in which thoughts rapidly and loosely shift, irritability, and verbal abusiveness if grandiose ideas are questioned.
Characteristics of mania
1.Annually about 2 million Americans suffer from bipolar disorder.2.Onset typically occurs in the early twenties.3.The disorder affects men and women at the same rate.4.It is a recurring, chronic disorder that generally responds favorably to drug therapy.
Prevalence and course
A milder, but chronic form of bipolar disorder, involves moderate but frequent moodswings.Peoplewith the disorder are perceived as extremely moody, unpredictable, and inconsistent.
Cyclothymicdisorder
Biological PerspectiveMood disorders run in familiesTwins studies indicate genetic influence on the diseaseDecreased levels ofnorepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine are all associated with depressionDrugs that alleviate mania reducenorepinephrinelevelsDrugs that alleviate depression increase levels of one or all three“tricyclic” – class of antidepressants that increase levels of all 3“SSRI’s” – (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors) increase serotonin specifically (Prozac, Zoloft, Paxil)Physical exercise (which reduces depression) increases serotonin levelsFrontal lobe activity is decreased in depressed patients and increased in manic patients
Explaining affective disorders
Behavioral PerspectiveStressesthe role of reinforcement.1.Depressed people may lack the social skills needed to gain normal social reinforcement from others.2.Thus, a vicious cycle develops in which reduced social reinforcement leads to depression, and depressed behavior further reduces social reinforcement.
Explaining affective disorders
Social-Cognitive PerspectiveDepressioncauses negative thinking AND negative thinking causes depression.Stress that the way people think can result in depression.Perfectionists set themselves up for depression through irrational self-demands they may not be able to meet.Payingattention to negative information, being highly self-critical, being pessimistic about the future, and focusing on the cause of the negative mood all contribute to depression.
Explaining affective disorders
Self-defeatingbeliefs (we believe were are worthless, we begin to act like we are worthless)Mayarise from learned helplessnessAttributionsDepressedpeople are more likely to explain bad events in terms that arestable(it’s going to last forever”,global(it affects everything), andinternal(its my fault).Depression is less common is collectivist cultures – maybe because of social supports or maybe because people are less likely to feel individually responsible for bad events
Explaining affective disorders
Mood-congruent memoryNegativemood causes negativethoughtsInteresting experimentAfter losing their basketballgamefans were more likely (than after a win)to predict not only that the team would fair poorly in future games, but also that they would fair poorly at several tasks (throwing darts, solving puzzles, getting a date)
Explaining affective disorders

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Mood (Affective) Disorders - Jenks Public Schools