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different models suggested on the teaching of literature to ESL/EFL students (Carter & Long, Lazar).How teacher uses a literary text depends on the model chosendiffer in terms offocuson the text
views a literary text as aproducttreated as asource of informationabout target culture.most traditional approachoften used in university courses on literature.
examine the social, political, historical background to a text,literary movements and specific language work done on a text.quite teacher-centred.
largely rejected by those in TEFLtend to be teacher-centredlittle opportunity for extended language work.
views literature as a source of facts or informationreading tends to be based on obtaining information.teacher transmits knowledge and information to the students
Carter (1988) considers the information-based approachas a way of teaching knowledge about literatureliterature is seen to offer a source of information to the students.
teaching methodologies tend to be teacher-centredLazar (1993): focus on contentrequire students to examine history and characteristics of literary movementscultural, social, political and historical background to a text,thus demanding a large input from the teacher.
lectures, explanation,reading of notes and criticism provided in workbooks or by the teacher.usually cater for instrumental purposes such as examinations (Carter & McRae, 1996).
most common approach to literature in the EFL classroomCarter and Long (1991) refer to as the ‘language-based approach’.
seeks a closer integration between language and literature.Students can improve their language proficiencyby using literature as a resource in language learning.
little engagement of the learner with the textFor linguistic practiceused in mechanistic wayProvide a series of language activitiesorchestrated by the teacher.
The language model seeks greater unification between language and literature.Carter (1988) :the language-based approach helps students to focus attention on the way as to how the language is used
see literary texts as resources for language practicethrough series of language activitiesrather than studying literature for the purpose of acquiring facts and information.
enables learners to access a text in a systematic and methodical wayin order to exemplify specific linguistic featurese.g. literal and figurative language,direct and indirect speech.
aims to be more learner-centred.attention to the way language is used.meaning and increase general awareness of English.
can choose to focus on:general grammar and vocabularyor use stylistic analysis.
cloze procedure,prediction exercisesjumbled sentences,summary writing,creative writing and role playpart of the repertoire of EFL activities used by teachers to deconstruct literary texts in order to serve specific linguistic goals.
Carter and McRae (1996)describe this model as taking a ‘reductive’ approach to literature.activities are disconnected from the literary goals of the specific text: can be applied to any text.
close study of the linguistic features of the textenable students to make meaningful interpretations of the textaims to help learners read and study literature more competently.
outlined by Carter and Long (1991)attempts to bridge the cultural and language modelFocus on the particular use of language in a textPlacing it in a specific cultural context.
helps learners develop knowledge of ideas and language– content and formal schemata– through different themes and topics.
seeks the opportunityfor students to relate and respondto the themes and issuesby making a connection to their personal lives.
function relatesto theories of readingemphasisethe interactionof the reader with the text.
text itself has no meaning,provides direction for the readerto construct meaning from the reader's own experience
integrate all these elementsmakes literature accessible to learnersbeneficial for linguistic development
need of the students'personal engagementwith the reading of literary texts.focuses on use of literature as a resource and not on the study of literature,
development of language competence and literary competence of the studentspleasure and personal fulfillment which come out of the reading of literaturemaking a literary text one's own.
Model aims to infuse a continuous love and appreciation of literary textsHelps learners to achieve an engagement with the reading of literary texts.Encourages learners to enjoy and love literature beyond the classroom as mentioned by Carter
motivate and enliven the students in the literature classselecting appealing workscan respond linguistically and emotionallythe process of reading - an enjoyable, responsive, individual and collective experience for all.(Carter and Long 1991:16-19)
highlights also, the necessity and pedagogical valueof developingstudents' critical awarenessbecome critical readers of literary texts
Duff andMaley(1990),main reasons for integrating these elementslinguistic,methodologicalmotivational.
by using a wide range of authentic textswe introduce learners to a variety of typesand difficulties of English language.
literary discourse sensitises readers to the processes of reading:e.g. the use of schema,strategies for intensive and extensive reading etc.
literary texts prioritise the enjoyment of reading
Carter, R. & Long, M.N. (1991) Teaching Literature. Harlow : LongmanChitravelu, et. al. (1995) ELT Methodology: Principles and Practice. Kuala Lumpur:FajarBakti.Collie, J. & Slater, S. (1987) Literature in the Language Classroom. Cambridge: CUPDuff, A. &Maley, A. (1990) Literature. Oxford: OUPLazar, G. (1991) Literature and Language Teaching. Cambridge: CUP





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