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MP ch03

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Chapter 3:Nutrition and Menu Planning
Nutrition Basics
Nutrition:the study of how food is used by the bodySix major nutrient groups:Proteins:provide calories, synthesize new body tissue during growth, and replace worn-out cellsCarbohydrates:include sugars, starches, and fiber.Fats:concentrated energy source, which provide more than twice as many calories as an equal amount of protein or carbohydrate. Can besaturatedorunsaturated.Vitamins:chemical compounds that are involved in various metabolic reactions in the body. Can befat-soluble vitaminsorwater-solublevitaminsMinerals:crystalline chemical elements that comprise about 4 percent of a person’s weight.Water:perhaps the most vital nutrient.
Fundamentals of Menu Planning 3rdedition. (McVety, Ware and Ware) John Wiley & Sons, Inc. © 2009
Guidelines & Recommendations for Meeting Nutrient Needs
UDSA Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005Adequate nutrients within calorie needsWeight managementPhysical activityFood groups to encourageFatsCarbohydratesSodium and potassiumAlcoholic beveragesFood safety
Fundamentals of Menu Planning 3rdedition. (McVety, Ware and Ware) John Wiley & Sons, Inc. © 2009
Food Pyramids & Nutrition Labeling
MyPyramidDeveloped by the USDA in 200512 models based on caloric need and physical activityOldwaysPreservation and Exchange TrustAsian Diet PyramidLatin American Diet PyramidMediterranean Diet PyramidVegetarian Diet PyramidNutrition LabelingUSDA established in 1994 that all packaged foods would be required to carry labels listing a food’s nutritional content
Fundamentals of Menu Planning 3rdedition. (McVety, Ware and Ware) John Wiley & Sons, Inc. © 2009
Relationship of Nutrition to Health
Nutrients promote good health by preventing deficiencies and chronic diseasesHeart diseaseHigh blood pressureObesityType 1 and 2 diabetes
Fundamentals of Menu Planning 3rdedition. (McVety, Ware and Ware) John Wiley & Sons, Inc. © 2009
Menu Planning Implications
Americans want the opportunity to select nutritious foodsVehicles to help increase interest in healthful eating:Nutrient breakdown of menu itemsPrinted general nutrition information on the menuHealth-orientednewsletterStaff knowledgeIngredient and food preparation affects the food’s nutritional contentTailoring a foodservice operation’s cooking methods to minimize vitamin loss can be achieved by adhering to eight guidelines.
Fundamentals of Menu Planning 3rdedition. (McVety, Ware and Ware) John Wiley & Sons, Inc. © 2009
Food Preparation Guidelines
Fundamentals of Menu Planning 3rdedition. (McVety, Ware and Ware) John Wiley & Sons, Inc. © 2009
Avoid overcooking food.Steam, stir-fry, or microwave foods instead of boiling. If cooking in water cannot be avoided, use as little as possible and reuse that water in a soup or stock gravy.Keep food wrapped to prevent oxidation.If appropriate, keep foods cool to decrease the activity of enzymes.Do not add baking soda to green vegetables to give them a bright green color.Store foods in the dark or in opaque containers.Cut foods into medium-size pieces for cooking. Large pieces usually cook too slowly, and very small pieces promote oxidation and loss of vitamins into the cooking water.Avoid holding food at serving temperature for a prolonged period, as on a steam table. This procedure not only increases vitamin loss, but also affects texture and increases the risk of food poisoning.

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MP ch03