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Chapter 18_ Pronoun Agreement, Reference, and Point of View

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Chapter 18: Pronoun Agreement, Reference, and Point of View
Pronouns are words that substitute for nouns (names of persons, places, or things).A pronoun’santecedentis the word or words it replaces.Examples of pronouns and their antecedents:Karis(antecedent) is a good friend to my daughter;she(pronoun replaces the wordKaris) is very thoughtful.I fell asleep during themovie(antecedent) becauseit(pronoun replaces the wordmovie) was boring.
Chapter 18: Pronoun Agreement, Reference, and Point of View
A pronoun must agree in number with its antecedent.If the antecedent is singular, the pronoun must be singular.If the antecedent is plural, the pronoun must be plural.Pronouns and their antecedents:Shannon(singular antecedent) tried to arrive on time, butshe(singular pronoun) got caught in traffic.Shannon and Jason(plural antecedent) tried to arrive on time, butthey(plural pronoun) got caught in traffic.Thevisitors(plural antecedent) tried to arrive on time, butthey(plural pronoun) were caught in traffic.
Chapter 18: Pronoun Agreement, Reference, and Point of View
Indefinite pronouns always take a singular antecedent.Indefinite Pronounsone nobody nothing eachanyone anybody anything eithersomeone somebody something neithereveryone everybody everythingEveryone(singular antecedent) receivedhis or her(singular pronoun) book.Each(singular antecedent) of the Girl Scouts hasher(singular pronoun) own backpack.
Chapter 18: Pronoun Agreement, Reference, and Point of View
Pronouns and Gender FairnessConsider the sentence: Everybody in the math class brought____own calculator.How do you choose the correct pronoun to fill in the blank? If everyone in the class is male, you can write:Everybodyin the math class broughthisown calculator.If everyone in the class if female, you can write:Everybodyin the math class broughtherown calculator.If the class has students of both sexes, you can write:Everybodyin the math class broughthis or herown calculator.
Chapter 18: Pronoun Agreement, Reference, and Point of View
Pronouns and Gender FairnessIn the past, most writers used the pronoun “his” to refer to both sexes. Today, writers use “his or her” to avoid sexual bias. If you find using “his or her” to be awkward or repetitive, you can rewrite the sentence and make the antecedent plural:Thestudentsin the math class broughttheirown calculators.
Chapter 18: Pronoun Agreement, Reference, and Point of View
Pronoun ReferenceIf a sentence has problems with pronoun reference, then either a pronoun does not have an antecedent or it has more than one possible antecedent.Example of no antecedent:Wrong: When I am in the checkout line at the grocery store,shealways asks if I want paper or plastic.Correct: When I am in the checkout line at the grocery store,the cashieralways asks if I want paper or plastic.
Chapter 18: Pronoun Agreement, Reference, and Point of View
Pronoun ReferenceThe sentence is confusing when a pronoun could refer to two antecedents.Example of two antecedents:Wrong: The waiter told Brandon thatheneeded to buy a new computer. (Ishethe waiter or Brandon?)Correct: The waiter needed to buy a new computer, and he told Brandon.Correct: The waiter told Brandon, “I need to buy a new computer.”
Chapter 18: Pronoun Agreement, Reference, and Point of View
PronounsThisandWhichThese pronouns are often used incorrectly.The PronounThisWhen you see the pronounthis, ask “This what?” If you cannot answer that question, thenthisprobably doesn’t have an antecedent.Example: Parts of the world are filled with hunger and crime. This should be addressed.Example corrected: Parts of the world are filled with hunger and crime. These problems should be addressed.
Chapter 18: Pronoun Agreement, Reference, and Point of View
The PronounWhichThe wordwhichcan cause confusion in a sentence when the word does not have an antecedent.To repair this problem, rewrite the sentence without the wordwhich.Example: Stan lost his wallet and then his car was stolen,whichdepressed him.Example corrected: Stan lost his wallet and then his car was stolen; he was depressed.
Chapter 18: Pronoun Agreement, Reference, and Point of View
Pronoun Point of ViewIn a sentence, do not shift the point of view from one person to another.Point of View Singular PluralFirst person I we(the person speaking)Second person you you(the person spoken to)Third person he, she, it, they(the person spoken about) singular indefinitepronouns (each,either, neither…)
Chapter 18: Pronoun Agreement, Reference, and Point of View
Pronoun Point of ViewExample: Carrie(third-person antecedent) likes vacationing at a warm beach becauseyou(second-person pronoun) always enjoy the water and seafood.Example corrected: Carrie(third-person antecedent) likes vacationing at a warm beach becauseshe(third-person pronoun) always enjoys the water and seafood.
Chapter 18: Pronoun Agreement, Reference, and Point of View Exercises
Identify and correct improper use of pronoun agreement or reference.Q. Every dog owner should walk their dog each day.A. Every dog owner should walkhis or herdog each day.Q. Henry and Austin spent his summer studying meteorology.A. Henry and Austin spenttheirsummer studying meteorology.Q. After months of the lengthy contest, either Samuel or Michael will earn the award because of their own individual hard work.A. After months of the lengthy contest, either Samuel or Michael will earn the award because ofhisown individual hard work.
Chapter 18: Pronoun Agreement, Reference, and Point of View Exercises
Identify and correct improper use of pronoun.Q. Julia works long hours and is not doing well in school. This is hard on students.A. Julia works long hours and is not doing well in school.Working while going to schoolis hard on students.Q. The principal’s daughter won the chess championship and traveled to London, which made the principal proud.A. The principal’s daughter won the chess championship and traveled to London. The principal was proud of his daughter’s intellect.(The word “which” removed.)
Chapter 18: Pronoun Agreement, Reference, and Point of View Exercises
Identify and correct improper use of pronoun agreement or reference.Q. The jury came to their final decision.A. The jury came toitsfinal decision.Q. After graduation, the audience threw its hats in the air.A. After graduation, the audience threwtheirhats in the air.Q. Everyone in the Girl Scouts is selling their yummy cookies.A. Everyone in the Girl Scouts is sellingheryummy cookies.
Chapter 18: Pronoun Agreement, Reference, and Point of View Exercises
Rewrite the following sentences to eliminate sexist pronouns.Q. A successful politician helps members of his community.A. A successful politician helps members ofhis or hercommunity.A. A successful politician helps members ofthecommunity.Q. A person of this country deserves to have his freedom.A. A person of this country deserves to havehis or herfreedom.A.Peopleof this countrydeserveto havetheirfreedom.
Chapter 18: Pronoun Agreement, Reference, and Point of View Exercises
Rewrite the following sentences to eliminate sexist pronouns.Q. A nurse should be knowledgeable about medications, and she should be kind as well.A. A nurse should be knowledgeable about medications, andhe or sheshould be kind as well.A.Nursesshould be knowledgeable about medications, andtheyshould be kind as well.Q. The cashier should always be polite to her customers.A. The cashier should always be polite tohis or hercustomers.A. The cashier should always be polite tothecustomers.A.Cashiersshould always be polite totheircustomers.
Chapter 18: Pronoun Agreement, Reference, and Point of View Exercises
Rewrite the following sentences to eliminate sexist pronouns if needed.Q. Each Boy Scout was selling his handmade wooden craft.A.correctQ. If a student wants to receive good grades, he must study.A. If a student wants to receive good grades,he or shemust study.A. Ifstudentswantto receive good grades,theymust study.
Chapter 18: Pronoun Agreement, Reference, and Point of View Exercises
Rewrite the following sentences to eliminate sexist pronouns.Q. A president of the company should be smart, and he should also listen to his employees.A. A president of the company should be smart, andhe or sheshould also listen tohis or heremployees.A. A president of the company should be smart, andhe or sheshould also listen totheemployees.Q. A female doctor’s job is to treat patients.A. A doctor’s job is to treat patients.(The word “female” is removed.)
Chapter 18: Pronoun Agreement, Reference, and Point of View Exercises
Correct the point of view problems.Q. Paula didn’t have enough money for the trip, but you should have guessed that with her uncontrollable spending habits.A. Paula didn’t have enough money for the trip, butsheshould have expected that with her uncontrollable spending habits.Q. Nate exercises every day before school because he knows it’s good for you.A. Nate exercises every day before school because he knows it’s good forhim.

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Chapter 18_ Pronoun Agreement, Reference, and Point of View