Chapter 14 Psychological Disorders
Abnormal Behavior: General Concepts
medicalmodel =viewsabnormal behavior asdiseasecriticized because itturns questions about deviance into medical questions.Mentalillness carries a stigma that can be difficult to shake& createsadditional difficulties for those who suffer from psychological disorders.
MedicalModel Applied to Abnormal Behavior
medicalmodel has been useful, as medical concepts such asDiagnosis - distinguishing one illness from anotherEtiology – apparent causation & developmental history of an illnessPrognosis- forecast about probable course of an illness
Criteria of AbnormalBehavior
3criteriausedin deciding whether people suffer from psychological disorders:deviance,personal distressmaladaptivebehavior.
Generalized anxiety disorder= chronic, high level of anxiety that is not tied to any specific threat
phobic disorder- persistent & irrationalfear of an object or situation that presents no realisticdanger
Panic Disorder& Agoraphobia
panic disorder= recurrentattacks of overwhelminganxietythat usually occur suddenly& unexpectedly
obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) = persistent, uncontrollable intrusions of unwanted thoughts (obsessions) &urges to engage in senseless rituals (compulsions)
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)= enduringpsychological disturbance attributed to the experience of a major traumatic event
disorders in which people lose contact with portions of their consciousness or memory, resulting in disruptions in their sense of identity
Dissociative Amnesia &Fugue
Dissociative amnesia= suddenloss of memory for important personal information that is too extensive to be due to normalforgettingdissociativefugue =people lose their memory for their entire lives along with their sense of personal identity
Dissociative identity disorder (DID)= coexistencein one person of two or more largely complete,& usuallyvery different, personalities
disorders marked by emotional disturbances of varied kinds that may spill over to disrupt physical, perceptual, social,& thought processes
major depressivedisorder = persistentfeelings of sadness& despairlossof interest in previous sources ofpleasureSocial isolationUnintentional rumination
Bipolar disorder=marked by the experience of both depressed and manic periods
Defining features include Disturbed, irrational thought processes, includingdelusions
Characterizedby deterioration of everyday adaptive behavior, auditory hallucinations,& disturbed emotionClassified as paranoid, catatonic, disorganized, orundifferentiatedUsuallyemerge during adolescence or youngadulthood
Autism =profound impairment of social interaction& communication & byseverely restricted interests& activities,apparentbyage3.tendsbe a lifelong affliction requiring extensive family& institutionalsupport throughout adulthood.
Anorexianervosa& Bulimianervosa.Anorexia & bulimiaboth lead to a cascade of medical problems, but anorexia is more dangerous.Bothdisorders are largely a product of affluent, Westernized culture that weren’t recognized until the 20th century.
Culturalpressures onyoungpeopleto be thin clearly help to foster eating disorders.Familiesthat endorse the idea that you can never be too thin can help to promote eating disorders.Rigid, disturbed thinking can also contribute to the development of these disorders.