Chapter 15 ~ Treatment of Psychological Disorders
1) Insight therapies=“talktherapy”relationshipbetween therapist & client therapeutic tool2) Behavior therapies =based onprinciples of learning,therapistsmake direct efforts to alter problematic responses(e.g. phobias) & maladaptivehabits(e.g. drug use).
3 Major categories of Treatments:
3).Biomedicaltherapies =involveinterventions into a person’s biologicalfunctioningmostwidely used procedures are drug therapy& electroconvulsive(shock) therapy.drugtherapy has become the dominant mode of treatment for psychologicaldisorders
3 Major categories of Treatments
Clinical& counselingpsychologists specializeindiagnosis& treatmentof psychological disorders& everydaybehavioral problems.Psychiatrists– physicians (MD)who specialize indiagnosis & treatmentof psychological disorders.Marriage &family therapists– requires master’sdegree that prepares them to workw/couples, families & individualsexperiencing relationshipproblems.
Therapists who provide treatment
Client-centered therapy= emphasizesproviding a supportive emotional climate for clients, who play a major role in determiningpace & directionof their therapy.
Tocreate this supportive atmosphere, client-centered therapists must provide three conditions:(1)genuineness(honest communication),(2)unconditionalpositive regard(nonjudgmental acceptance ofclient)(3)accurateempathy(understandingofclient’s point of view).
Group therapy= simultaneoustreatment of several clients in a group.provenparticularly helpful when members share similar problems, such as alcoholism, overeating, or having been sexually abused as a child.
Couples or marital therapy= treatmentof both partners in a committed, intimate relationship, in which the main focus is on relationship issues.Family therapy= treatmentof a family unit as a whole, in which the main focus is on family dynamics& communication
Systematic desensitization= behaviortherapy used to reduce clients’ phobicresponsesExposuretherapies= clientsare confrontedw/ situationsthat they fear so that they learn that these situations are really harmless
Cognitive-behavioral= usescombinations of verbal interventions& behaviormodification techniques to helpclientschange maladaptive patterns of thinking.Cognitive therapy= usesspecific strategies to correct habitual thinking errors that underlie various types of disorders
Antianxiety drugs =fairly effective in reducing feelings of anxiety, but their impact is short-lived.some nuisance side effects, can be complications involving abuse, dependence, & overdose.Antipsychotic drugs reduce psychotic symptoms in about 70% of patients.Traditional antipsychotics can have a variety of serious side effects, which have been reduced in the newer, atypical antipsychotics.
Antidepressantsare used to bring people out of episodes of depression.Moodstabilizers are used to prevent the recurrence of episodes of disturbance in people with bipolar mood disorders.
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)= biomedicaltreatment in which electric shock is used to produce a cortical seizure accompanied by convulsions.Overall,seemsto be enoughevidenceto justifyconservativeuse of ECT in treating severe mood disorders in patients who have not responded to medication (Carney & Geddes, 2003; Metzger, 1999).relapse rates after ECT are distressingly high
Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT)