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Psych 101 Review 4 - University of Washington

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Psych 101 Review 4
Psychological Disorders, Therapy Techniques and Social Psychology
Psychological Disorders
Mental Health Professionals:Clinical Psychologists: specializes in the psychological treatment of mental disorders; PhD in psychology- does not prescribe drugsPsychiatrist- specializes in biological treatment of mental disorders (prescribes drugs); PhD and M.D.Problem: diagnosing mental disordersIs the patient mentally ill?What form of mental illness does the patient suffer from?
DSM-IV
DSM: diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disordersProvides diagnostic criteria for all acknowledged syndromes of mental illnessRosenhan(1973)Conclusion: observer and context
Abnormality
Deviations from statistical normsVery infrequent or rare behaviorProb: positive behaviors also!Deviations from social normsDiverges from socially accepted normsProb: culture!Maladaptivenessof behaviorNegative consequences for themselvesProb: we must do uncomfortable things sometimes
Mood Disorders
Types:Unipolar- major depressive disorderStraight downBipolar- manic depressive disorderMood swings in both directions
Major Depression
“Normal” DepressionTied to specific eliciting eventShort duration: 2-3 weeks or less“Major” DepressionNo obvious eliciting eventLong duration (months or years)SeverityIncidence: men< women4% of world’s population
Major Depression
Cause and TreatmentBio: chemical imbalance in the brain- underactive serotonin systemMAO inhibitorsTears apart NT molecules in synapseTricyclicsPartially block re-uptake of NTs2ndgen: more specific to SeSSRIsSpecific re-uptake inhibitor
Schizophrenia
Severe psychotic disorder of thoughts; thought and behavior are ‘divorced’ from realityOnset often occurs in young adulthood or adolescenceIncidence rates: 1% of general pop
Schizophrenia
Diagnostic Criteria:Bizarre delusionsParanoiaAuditory hallucinationsDisorders of logical thoughtCatatonia or bizarre movementsInappropriate emotional response
Schizophrenia
Positive Type‘positive-symptoms’HallucinationsDelusionsThought disordersNegative Type‘negative-symptoms’Flat emotionsImpaired attentionPoor social adjustment
Schizophrenia
Genetic predisposition + environmental stressor = schizophreniaGenetic FactorsDopamine hypothesisSchizophrenia caused by a hyperactive dopamine systemTreatment: administer drugs that reduce activity of DA system
Phobias
Phobias- irrational fearsSimple: claustrophobia, aerophobia, acrophobia,arachibutyphobia,belonaphobia,taphophobiaMore complex: agoraphobia- fear of contact with other people or open spacesHypochondriasis: excessive fear of diseaseOCD
Therapy
Psychological treatment of psychological problems/disordersNot effective for psychosisPsychoanalytic TherapyProbscaused by repressed thoughts/impulses/conflictsAllow impulses to enter consciousness to work through themTools and Methods:Free associationsDream analysisAnalysis of everyday behavior-malepropismsProjective testsExamination of resistance
Therapy
Behavior TherapyMaladaptive learned responses to stimuliClient unlearns association between stimuli and maladaptive responseTools and methodsSystematic desensitizationAversive conditioning
Therapy
Humanistic (Client-centered) therapyResult from low self esteemClient clarify feelings and strive to fulfill potential – self actualizationTools and methodsNon-directive counseling: genuineness, empathy, unconditional positive regard
Therapy
Perls‘Gestalt’ TherapySelf-actualization blocked when important thoughts, emotions and wishes remain outside our awarenessPre-occupation with social roles and expectationsFrustrate person to get them to stop being a ‘phony’Tools and methods:Pay attention to non-verbal behaviorPoint out phony behaviorFocus on ‘here and now’‘empty chair’ trick- direct confrontation with problemAsk client to act/behave in a manner opposite to the way s/he actually is
Therapy
Cognitive TherapyCounterproductive habits of thoughtHelp client eliminate bad habits of thought based on irrational beliefsExs: all or nothing thinking, overgeneralizations, disqualifying the positive, mind reading,catastrophizing, emotional reasoningTools and methods:Cognitive restructuringSelf-instructional training: ‘self-talk’
Therapy
Cognitive Behavioral therapyCurrently the most popular form of therapyCombines cognitive and behavioral therapy with an emphasis on the cognitive aspects
Social Psychology
The study of social influences on behavior and of social relations between peopleA. LoveRomantic love: an aroused state of an intense absorption in another personCompassionate love: the affection we feel for those with whom our lives are deeply interrelated
Dating
Men fall in love more quickly than women and women are more likely to end a relationship than are menDyadic factors for breaking up:Bored with relationship- 76%Differences in interests- 72%-61%Non-dyadic Factors:Women’s desire to be independentMan’s desire to be independent
Marriage and Divorce
The number of people getting married has steadily declined over the past 50 yearsThe age of people getting married has steadily increased of the past 50 yearsDivorce:Communication problems- 83%Unrealistic expectations- 55%
Influence of Social Roles and Social Situations
ZimbardoPrison studyResults:Guardsbecame abusive and degradingPrisoners became passive and obedient; some of them broke down emotionallyGrad students, parents, chaplain conformed to the situation and accepted without question!Conclusion: our behavior is strongly influenced by the social roles/situations we find ourselves in
Influence of Social Roles and Social Situations
Milgram’sStudy: the tendency to obey authority“Teachers” (subjects) were asked to administer very strong shocks to innocent “learners’Manipulate distance between ‘Teacher’ subject and ‘victim’ learnerCompliance increasesManipulate distancebtwn‘teacher’ subject and authority figureCompliance decreases
Influence of Social Roles and Social Situations
Direct vs. Indirect actionDirect action: subject must push shock buttonIndirect action: subject only reads, no shock buttonEffects of age, gender, educational level and occupation of subjectno effectAll kinds of people are willing to obey authority figures, even when that results in harm to others
Influence of Social Roles and Social Situations
Nurse experimentBroke all 3 cardinal rules!“the doctor is always right”Subway experimentWhen asked to violate a simple social rule, students and evenMilgramfound it impossible!

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Psych 101 Review 4 - University of Washington