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ECEII-8 Communicable Illnesses Review Questions

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ECE2-8Communicable IllnessesReview Questions
Dr. Lea Folds
1. Identify and explain three risk factors that contribute to the frequency of communicable diseases in young children.
Fewer opportunities to develop antibodies because they have limited prior exposure to infectious illnessTheir body structures are still immature and make it easier for organisms to enter the body and cause infection.Group-settings such as child care centers and schools provide an environment that make it easy to spread illness.
2. Draw and discuss the communicable illness model shown in the book on page 114.
Host
Method of Transmission
Pathogen
All three factors must be present for the transmission process to occur.Pathogens can live in the discharges from the respiratory and intestinal tract, blood, urine, and eye discharge.A susceptible host is someone vulnerable to the pathogen or bacteria. Pathogens can enter the body through breaks in the skin, respiratory system, ordigestive tract.The infectious agent has to pass from the original source to a new host. This is done through airborne transmission, fecal-oral transmission, direct contact, and indirect contact.
3. What factors might make someone more susceptible to becoming infected by pathogens? Why do some people who are exposed to a pathogen get sick and others do not?
A. Not getting enough rest; not getting enough nutritious food to eat; and not being immunized against common childhood illnesses.B. Conditions have to be favorable in order for the bacteria/pathogen to multiply in the body and make someone ill. If the person has immunity to the pathogen they might not get ill.
4. Why must these three factors be present at the same time in order for infection to occur?
Because they all must be connected in order for infection to occur. If the cycle is broken the bacteria/pathogen cannot be spread.
5. Make a list of ten places pathogens can be found in your ECE lab or in a daycare center.
Students response.
6. Describe ways to reduce the spread of pathogens in a daycare setting.
A. Use universal Infection Control Precautions when handling contaminated bodily fluids.Wash hands using approved guidelines.Clean and sanitize toys, equipment, furniture, and surfaces people come in contact with.Maintain separate diapering and toileting areas and carefully follow procedures for disinfecting to prevent the spread of infection from one person to another.
7. Discuss the methods of disease transmission.
Airborne transmission-germs are spread by tiny droplets when people sneeze or coughFecal-oral transmission-germs get on the hands and are spread when hands are put in the mouth.Direct contact-when a person comes in to direct contact with germs (touching, breathing, eating…)Indirect contact-coming into contact with germs by touching a surface that has been contaminated; coming into contact with infected animals or insects; or being bitten by an animal or insect.
8. Create a graphic that shows the four stages of an illness. Include information about what is happening during each stage of the illness.
Incubation-Prodromal-Acute-ConvalescenceIncubation-the time between exposure to an illness and when the first symptoms are experiencedProdromal-the appearance of the first non-specific symptomsAcute-the individual is definitely sick and experiencing characteristic symptoms of an illnessConvalescence-the recovery stage of an illness
9. What role do immunizations play in helping maintain a healthy population?
They help prevent people from becoming ill with diseases that can be debilitating or cause death.They also keep people from spreading illnesses they come in contact with to others that may not be vaccinated yet. (Infants not yet old enough for certain vaccinations.)
10. Describe the process of accepting medications for children in the childcare center.
Medicine must be in the original container and labeled with the child’s name, the drug name, and the time and dose to be administered.To prevent confusion, one person should be designated to receive and administer medications from parents.All medications should be stored in a locked cabinet. Medicines needing refrigeration should be stored in a locked box on the top shelf of the refrigerator.
11. Discuss appropriate methods of storing and administering medication that are to be given to children while they are in childcare?
Wash hands before and after handling medications.Be honest about taste of medicine. Do not call it candy.Concentrate on what you are doing.Read the label on the container 3 times:When you remove it from the locked containerBefore pouring it from the containerAfter pouring it from the container
11. Discuss appropriate methods of storing and administering medication that are to be given to children while they are in childcare?
Administer the medication on time and only give the amount prescribed.Be sure you have the correct child. If they are old enough to talk as them “What’s your name?”Record and maintain a permanent record of each dose of medicine that is administered (the date and time given, name of person administering the dose, dose of medication given, and any unusual changes in behavior or physical appearance since the dose was given.Inform the parents about medications given, dosage, and any unusual reactions.Teachers should NEVER take medicine in front of children.
What are Universal Infection Control Precautions? What is their role in preventing the spread of illness and germs?
Special measures taken when handling bodily fluids, including careful hand washing, wearing disposable gloves, disinfecting surfaces, and proper disposal of contaminated objects.Part of the U.S. Department of Labor, the Department of Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is responsible for protecting worker’s safety by ensuring that workplace environments and practices meet federal guidelines.Universal precautions in childcare are designed to protect teachers from accidental exposure tobloodbornepathogens, including hepatitis B and C and HIV/Aids. All body fluids are considered potentially infectious and therefore should be treated as such.
13. Explain how toys, furniture, and surfaces should be cleaned to reduce the spread of germs and illnesses.
Toys that children have placed in their mouths should be removed for cleaning before they are used by another child.Items should be washed with soap and warm water, rinsed in a disinfecting solution, and allowed to air dry.Some toys can be sanitized in the dishwasher.Washable cloth and stuffed objects should be laundered between use with other children.Surfaces should be scrubbed daily with soap and water and disinfected.Desktops and equipment in school-age classrooms should also be wiped off with a mild disinfectant at least once a week, or daily during cold and flu season.
14. What changes in room layout can help reduce the spread of germs and illnesses?
Room temperatures set at 68-70 degrees Fahrenheit are less favorable for the spread of infectious illnesses and are often more comfortable for children.Rooms should be well ventilated to reduce the concentration of infectious organisms circulating within a given space.Humidity level should be checked. Extremely warm, dry air increases the risk of respiratory infection by causing the mucous membranes to become dry and cracked.Separate older children from younger children.
14. What changes in room layout can help reduce the spread of germs and illnesses?
Surfaces should be smooth and easy to clean.Laundry and food prep areas should be separated from each other.Pedal operated sinks, faucets, and trash cans; motion sensing faucets can encourage more frequenthandwashing.Cover outdoor sandboxes to prevent contamination from animal feces.Water tables and wading pools should be emptied andsantizeddaily.Items such as hats, wigs, etc. that go on the head should not be used unless they can be cleaned and sanitized to prevent the spread of lice.
15. Why is it important for people working with young children to recognize and understand the prevention of communicable diseases?
So they can help educate children and families on how to prevent the spread of communicable illnesses.They can help parents understand how to properly clean, sanitize, or disinfect surfaces.

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ECEII-8 Communicable Illnesses Review Questions