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Population and Migration Patterns and processes

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Population and Migration Patterns and processes
Patterns and Spatial Organization (PSO)How does where and how people live impact global cultural, political, and economic Patterns?Impacts and Interactions (IMP)How does the interplay of environmental, economic, cultural, and political factors influence changes in population?Spatial patterns and societal changeHow do changes in population affect a place’s economy, culture, and politics?
Topic 2.4
Population dynamics
Enduring Understanding: IMP-2
Changes in population are due to mortality, fertility, and migration, which area influenced by the interplay of environmental, economic, cultural, and political factors
Learning objective: IMP-2.a
Explain factors that account for contemporary and historical trends in population growth and decline
Essential Knowledge IMP-2.A.1
Demographic factors that determine a population’s growth and decline arefertility, mortality, and migration.
FertilityThe birth rate is the total number of live births in a given year per 1000 people in populationTotal Fertility Rate (TFR)- this is the average number of babies a woman is expected to have as she passes through her fecund (ability to have a child)years.replacement level fertility which is a TFR between 2.1 to 2.4 is the ultimate goal for most societiesThis ensures society continues to grow, but doesn’t surpass its carrying capacityIf TFR is too low it hurts the area because they wont have as many workers which will stop them from progressing
Essential Knowledge IMP-2.A.1
MortalityThis is any death related activity within the populationMortality rate is the number of deaths per year in a population per 1,000 of the populationWe also study specific mortality data because it provides insight into a countryInfant Mortality Rate – number of babies that die during the first year per 1,000 live birthsChild Mortality rate – Number of children who die before age 5 per 1,000 live birthsThese numbers are very important and reflect the overall health and access to proper nutrition in a stateIf these numbers are low it means there is access to good health care and proper nutrition
Essential Knowledge IMP-2.A.1
MigrationThere are two main types of migration: Emigration and ImmigrationEmigration is the act of leaving a location with the intent to settle someplace elseYou emigrate from where you are leavingImmigration is the act of migrating to a new locationYou immigrate to where you are going
Essential Knowledge IMP-2.a.2
Geographers use therate of natural increaseand population doubling time to explain population growth and decline
The Rate of Natural Increase (RNI) is a statistic that compares the birth rate and death rate of a country for population growth or declineDoes not include immigration or emigrationIt is calculated as (CBR-CDR)/10 = and it is expressed as a percentageCountry has a CBR of 34.39 and a CDR of 17.89 its RNI is (34.39-17.89)/10 = 1.65% (population is growing at 1.65%)Try calculating on your own- CBR 9.47 CDR of 14.68
Essential Knowledge IMP-2.a.2
Population doubling timeAmount of time it takes for a population in a given area to double.It is calculated using what is called “the rule of 70”70/RNILets see how this works with our previous #s we look at on previous slideRNI from example #1 was 1.65% so 70/1.65 = 42.42So roughly the population would double in 42.5 yearsNow Calculate RNI and Doubling time for the following numbersCDR – 4.89 CBR – 8.76
Essential Knowledge IMP-2.a.3
Social, cultural, political, and economic factors influence fertility, mortality, and migration rates
Social factors can affect fertility, mortality, and migrationRole of genders in societyAre women empowered = lower fertility ratesIs family planning acceptableIf family planning is used typically that means contraceptives have been introduced which reduces fertilityAge of marriage and traditional family size valuesIf marrying young is culturally expected fertility rate is going to be higherTypically if fertility rates are higher so will mortality rates (DTM will show when this is not the case in the next couple sections)
Essential Knowledge IMP-2.a.3
Cultural factors can affect fertility, mortality, and migrationReligion -Catholic church forbidding birth controlEthnicity – certain ethnic groups have larger families (ties into religion as well)Seeking health care or using home remedies to cure diseases
Essential Knowledge IMP-2.a.3
Governments can play a rolePolicy on limiting or encouraging childrenPronatalistpoliciesGovernment funded programs to encourage child birthsAntinatalistpoliciesChina’s one/two child policyGovernment supports/funds healthcare for societyConflicts/warCan lead to mortality and migration
Essential Knowledge IMP-2.a.3
Economic factors that affect fertility, mortality, and migrationEducation & jobs - if women have higher education and have jobs they are less likely to have as many babiesChild labor for farms in rural poor areas of the peripheryAccess to high quality health care costs moneyMigration- people will migrate towards areas of economic opportunity and away from areas that don’t have access to jobs and resources.





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Population and Migration Patterns and processes